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layer in Biological Definition

Cartilage

... Perichondrium The perichondrium is a tissue layer that lines most types of cartilage. There are two distinct layers, an outer fibrous layer and inner chondrogenic layer. The fibrous layer contains fibroblasts which can produce collagen ...

Chromatography

... theory 3 Paper chromatography 4 Thin layer chromatography (TLC) 5 Gas-liquid ... complex mixtures of similar compounds. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) In thin layer chromatography or TLC the stationary phase ...

Epidermis

... could refer to: In plants , the outermost layer of cells covering the leaves and young parts of ... In vertebrates , epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin . In invertebrates , the outermost layer of cells of the organism. Etymology : 17th ...

Joint

... cartilage is multi-layered. A thin superficial layer provide a smooth surface for the two bones to ... and distribute the load efficiently. The deepest layer is highly calcified, and anchors the articular ... The synovium is separated from the capsule by a layer of celluar tissue that contains blood vessels and ...

Keratin

... a tough, insoluble protein found in the outer layer of the skin of human beings and many other animals. This outer layer of skin is called the epidermis . The outermost layer of cells of the epidermis contains keratin. The ...

Kidney

... is covered by the renal capsule , which is a layer of loose connective tissue . The basic ... endothelium in the glomerulus a proteinaceous layer of basement membrane a single-cell epithelial ... covering of the kidney. cortex : The outer layer over the internal medulla. It contains blood ...

Leaf

... divided into two layers: an upper palisade layer of tightly packed, vertically elongated cells, ... soil, are single-layered. Beneath the palisade layer is the spongy layer . The cells of the ...

Lichen

... of interlaced filaments (fungus). The upper layer is formed by densely agglutinated fungal hyphae building a protective outer layer called the cortex . Cyanobacteria may be held in ... Beneath the upper cortex is an algal layer composed of algal cells embedded in rather ...

Lung

... by a double-walled sac called pleura . The inner layer of the sac adheres tightly to the outside of the lungs and the outer layer is attached to the wall of the chest cavity. The ... in the systemic veins serve as a physical layer of soft, shock -absorbent protection for the ...

Skin

... integumentary system ; which is composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles ... , which is not usually classified as a layer of skin. The outermost epidermis is made up of ... papillary and reticular layers. The papillary layer is outermost and extends in to the dermis to ...

Endodermis

... Endodermis is the bottom layer of skin . In plants, it is a thin layer of parenchyma found in roots , just outside the vascular cylinder. It ...

Marcello Malpighi

... microscopic anatomical structures are named after him, including a skin layer (Malpighi layer ) and two different Malpighian corpuscles in the kidneys and the ...

Blastula

... blastula is an early stage of embryonic development in animals . It is produced by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and consisting of a spherical layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity. The blastula follows the morula and precedes the gastrula in the development sequence. A blastula ...

Biological membrane

... membrane or biomembrane is a membrane which acts as a barrier within or around a cell . It is a lipid bilayer , being composed of a double layer of lipid -class molecules , specifically phospholipids , with occasional proteins intertwined, some of which function as channels . Such ...

Bone

... bone is called the diaphysis , and has a hollow middle - the medullar cavity - filled with bone marrow. Surrounding the medullar cavity is a thin layer of cancellous bone that also contains marrow. The extremities of the bone are called the epiphyses , and are mostly cancellous bone covered by a ...

Botany

... plants provided systematics and taxonomy . Plant responses to ultraviolet radiation can help us monitor problems like the holes in the ozone layer . Analysing pollen deposited by plants thousands or millions of years ago can help scientists to reconstruct past climates and predict future ...

Cellulose

... recently Modal , a textile derived from beechwood cellulose. Cellulose is also used within the laboratory as a solid-state substrate for thin layer chromotography . Chemistry Cellulose monomers (beta-glucose) are linked together through 1,4 glycosidic bonds . Cellulose is a straight ...

Developmental biology

... embryo , embryogenesis , embryogeny , embryology , endoderm , extra-embryonic membrane , fetus (or foetus ), gastrula , gastrulation , germ layer , germ plasm , germination , induction , juvenile , larva , maternal effect , mesoderm , metamorphosis , morphogenesis , morula , neoteny , ...

Diffusion

... field. Momentum diffusion In the case of laminar flow of a liquid flowing past a solid surface, momentum diffuses across the boundary layer near the surface. The gradient in this case is between the liquid in contact with the surface (which isn't moving at all and has zero momentum) and ...

Down syndrome

... of the amyloid protein . Neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques are commonly found in both Down syndrome and Alzheimer's individuals. layer II of the entorhinal cortex and the subiculum , both critical for memory consolidation , are among the first affected by the damage. A gradual ...

Morphogenesis

... axis. The segmentation genes specify 14 "parasegments" that are closely related to the final anatomical segments. The gap genes are the first layer of a hierarchical cascade of the segmentation control genes. Proteins such as Bicoid can be described as morphogens that act within the syncytial ...

Flagellum

... through protein rings in the cell's membranes that act as bearings. Gram-positive organisms have 2 basal body rings, one in the peptidoglycan layer and one in the plasma membrane . Gram-negative organisms have 4 rings: L ring associates with the lipopolysaccharides , P ring associates with ...

HACEK organism

... a set of slow-growing Gram negative bacteria that form a normal part of the human flora . They are a frequent cause of inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, ( endocarditis ) in children . The name is formed from their initials: H aemophilus aphrophilus and Haemophilus ...

Photosynthesis

... waxy cuticle , that, protects the leaf from excessive absorption of light and evaporation of water. The transparent, colourless epidermis layer allows light to pass through to the mesophyll cells where most of the photosynthesis takes place. Photosynthesis in algae and bacteria Algae ...

Insulin

... C-peptide has recently been discovered to have biological activity itself; the activity is apparently confined to an effect on the muscular layer of the arteries . Actions on cellular and metabolic level The actions of insulin on the global human metabolism level include: cellular ...

Lipid

... self-organisation depends on the concentration of the lipid present in solution. Below the critical micelle concentration the lipids form a single layer on the liquid surface and are dispersed in solution. At the first critical micelle concentration (CMC-I), the lipids organise in spherical micelles, ...

Morphogenesis

... axis. The segmentation genes specify 14 "parasegments" that are closely related to the final anatomical segments. The gap genes are the first layer of a hierarchical cascade of the segmentation control genes. Proteins such as Bicoid can be described as morphogens that act within the syncytial ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... required for each step of the reaction. To prevent evaporation of the reaction mixture, a heated lid is placed on top of the reaction tubes or a layer of oil is put on the surface of the reaction mixture. These machines cost in the order of USD 2,500 in 2004 . Primers The DNA fragment ...

Photosynthesis

... waxy cuticle , that, protects the leaf from excessive absorption of light and evaporation of water. The transparent, colourless epidermis layer allows light to pass through to the mesophyll cells where most of the photosynthesis takes place. Photosynthesis in algae and bacteria Algae ...

Prokaryote

... of free-living. Colonies are formed by organisms that remain attached following cell division , sometimes through the help of a secreted slime layer . Environment Prokaryotes are found in nearly all environments on earth. Archaea in particular seem to thrive in harsh conditions, such as ...

Stem cell

... able to differentiate into many types of tissue, including neurons , smooth muscle cells and fat-cells. These were found in the dermis , the inner layer of the skin. These stem cells play a pivotal role in healing small cuts. Blood vessels , the dental pulp, the digestive epithelium , the retina , ...

Stoma

... nail varnish impression of it. Paint about one square centimeter of the underside of the leaf with transparent nail varnish.(or thin layer of PVA glue ) Allow to dry out thoroughly (takes a good 30 minutes). Peel off and place on a microscope slide. The stomata leave ...

Thermoregulation

... used by humans). Hair in mammals also acts as a good insulator; mammalian skin is much thicker than that of birds and often has a continuous layer of insulating fat beneath the dermis - in marine mammals like whales this is referred to as blubber. Heat production in birds and mammals In ...

Vestibular system

... on each side, one called Utricle , the other Saccule . Figure 4C shows a cross section through an otolith: the otoconia crystals in the Otoconia layer (Fig. 4, top layer) rest on a viscous gel layer, and are heavier than their surroundings. Therefore they get displaced during linear acceleration, ...
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