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into in Biological Definition

Coenzyme A

... energy production. The conversion of pyruvate into Acetyl-CoA is referred to as the Pyruvate ... has the coenzyme TPP incorporated into it, 24 dihydrolipoyl transacetylase has lipoate ... reaction, pyruvate is decarboxylated and turned into acetaldehyde , then attached to coenzyme A while ...

Actin

... with the association of three G-actin monomers into a trimer. ATP-actin then binds the plus (+) end, ... of the actin filament. This pulls the membrane into a different shape relative to the cell cortex. ... and cytokinesis , the division of one cell into two. Networks Actin networks, along with ...

Active transport

... or antiporter, which allows three sodium ions into the cell to transport one calcium out. Many ... per second by the exchanger. The exchanger comes into service when the calcium concentration rises ... sodiums for every molecule of glucose it imports into the cell. See also Ion channel ...

Amino acid

... than the standard 20 are sometimes incorporated into proteins during translation: Selenocysteine is incorporated into some proteins at a UGA codon , which is normally ... classified by properties of the side chain into four groups: acidic , basic , hydrophilic ( ...

Animal

... Porifera), animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues . These include muscles , ... The cells are differentiated, but not organized into distinct tissues. Sponges are sessile and ... is supported by a skeleton typically divided into spicules. The extinct Archaeocyatha , which ...

Antibiotic

... in World War II , resources were poured into investigating and purifying penicillin, and a ... New antibiotics were rapidly discovered and came into widespread use, and a new era of research into the possibility of similarly "magic" ...

Antibody

... . Here the plasma proteins are separated into albumin , alpha-globulins (1 and 2), ... constant domains, immunoglobulins are grouped into five classes or isotypes: IgG , IgA , IgM , ... is primarily secreted across the mucosal tract into the stomach and intestines . It is also found ...

Antigen

... response (provokes immunity) when introduced into the body. An immunogen is always a macromolecule ... . It can be eaten, inhaled, injected or comes into contact with skin. Antigens are presented by ... used, several types of immune cells can leap into action. We can also classify antigens according ...

Apoptosis

... dividing without restrictions, developing into cancer . For example, as part of the hijacking ... their possibly damaging internal contents into extracellular space - apoptotic cells and their ... ). Chromatin undergoes further condensation into compact patches against the nuclear envelope . ...

Artificial life

... life researchers have often been divided into two main groups (although other groupings are ... It was exhibited all over Europe until it fell into disrepair. [1] 1950s-1970s One of the ... 19th century American thinker Charles S. Peirce into the modern age. Peirce was a strong believer ...

ATP synthase

... use for flagella and transport of nutrients into the cell. In respiring bacteria under ... mitochondrial membrane (so that F 1 -part sticks into mitochondrial matrix, were ATP synthesis takes ... O F 1 -ATP synthase). The enzyme is integrated into thylakoid membrane; the CF 1 -part ...

Bacterial conjugation

... an episome (a plasmid that can integrate itself into the bacterial chromosome by genetic ... DNA of the nicked strand is inserted into the recipiane bacterium (5'-end first). The now ... minutes. The transferred DNA can be integrated into the recipients DNA by recombination. Bacteria ...

Biology

... organisms , how species and individuals come into existence, and the interactions they have with ... Traditionally, living things were divided into five kingdoms: Monera -- Protista -- ... initial origin of life to the present time. Up into the 19th century it was commonly believed that ...

Biodiversity

... richnesses. This value can be divided into use value (direct such as tourism or indirect ... because only a small number of species come into being each year. Some people say that up to 1/5 ... not food species, their biomass is converted into human food when their habitat is ...

Bacterium

... view. In 1977, Woese divided the prokaryotes into two groups based on 16S rRNA sequences, called ... division. During this process, one cell divides into two daughter cells with the development of a ... oxygen. These anoxygenic phototrophs fall into four phylogenetic groups: the green sulfur ...

Bone

... to one of the individual structures, or organs , into which it is formed, found in many animals . ... originate from osteoblasts which have migrated into and become trapped and surrounded by bone matrix ... and then exported. It then associates into fibrils . Also making up the organic part of ...

Blood

... and that blood only becomes red when it comes into contact with oxygen. Blood is never blue , but ... acids (the kidney secretes many small proteins into the urine ). Transport of oxygen The ... carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissues into the blood. Some carbon dioxide is dissolved in ...

Calvin cycle

... photosynthesis, light energy has been converted into chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH . The ... energy carriers to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds that can be used by the ... 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde molecule is converted into glucose. The known Calvin cycle as of 1997 ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... from the environment. The stomata may be sunken into pits. Some xerophytes shed their leaves during ... CAM plants uptake CO2 at night and change it into crassulacean acid that can be broken down during ... Malate in particular is easily broken down into pyruvate , which can be phosphorylated ...

Brain

... Myth: Mental abilities are separated into the left and right cerebral hemispheres . ... In insects, the brain can be divided into four parts, the optical lobes, the protocerebrum, ... complex. In cephalopods, the brain is divided into two regions: the supraesophageal mass and the ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... from the environment. The stomata may be sunken into pits. Some xerophytes shed their leaves during ... CAM plants uptake CO2 at night and change it into crassulacean acid that can be broken down during ... Malate in particular is easily broken down into pyruvate , which can be phosphorylated ...

Cancer

... symptom. Roughly, cancer symptoms can be divided into three groups: Local symptoms : unusual ... of diagnostic procedures and treatment be taken into account when considering whether to undertake ... organ. Since a single cancer cell can grow into a sizeable tumor, removing only the tumor leads ...

Carbohydrate

... Monosaccharides may be divided into aldoses , which have an aldehyde group on the ... group on the second. They may also be divided into trioses , tetroses , pentoses , hexoses , and ... of how large a carbohydrate must be to fall into each category vary however. Oligosaccharides ...

Cartilage

... fibers, 15-45nm in diameter that do not assemble into large bundles. Elastic cartilage also contains ... mesenchyme tissue, which differentiates into chondrocytes and begin secreting the materials ... the cartilage ring, causing tissue to herniate into the spinal canal . The matrix of cartilage ...

Cell growth

... issue is the separation of the duplicated DNA into two equally sized groups of chromosomess . The ... of the reproducing parental cell is separated into two equal halves that are destined to end up in ... produce 92 "single chromosomes", half of which go into each daughter cell. During meiosis, there are two ...

Cellular respiration

... -rich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy usable for life processes. Oxidation ... this oxidation process is broken down into two basic metabolic pathways : glycolysis , ... . The process converts one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate , and makes energy in ...

Cell metabolism

... simpler substances, such as amino acids , into more complex organic compounds, such as ... catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into smaller units. The empirical formula for ... Protein catabolism is the breakdown of proteins into amino acids and simple derivative compounds, ...

Charles Darwin

... social, political, and anthropological insights into the areas he visited. From reading ... of the Beagle's voyage. He now also plunged into writing a book on South American Geology, at the ... species relating to localities, earlier enquiries into animal breeding, and ideas of Natural "laws of ...

Chromatin

... is found compacted in chromatin. DNA is packaged into chromatin both to constrain the size of the ... , the male germ cell 's chromatin is remodelled into a more tightly packaged, compact structure. This ... is found compacted in chromatin. DNA is packaged into chromatin both to constrain the size of the ...

Chromosome

... though size and necessity are generally taken into account. Bacterial chromosomes initiate ... Heterochromatin can be further distinguished into two types: Constitutive heterochromatin , ... ability to be stained), photographed and arranged into a karyotype (an ordered set of chromosomes, ....

Chromatography

... carried by liquid or gas and separates it into its component parts as a result of differential ... well. His contribution was turning the phenomenon into the method of scientific analysis. The Greek ... color reagent. Specific color reagents exist into which the TLC plate is dipped or which are ...

Citric acid cycle

... down of carbohydrates , fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and water in order to generate ... breaks glucose (a six-carbon-molecule) down into pyruvate (a three-carbon molecule). In eukaryotes , pyruvate moves into the mitochondria . It is ...

Cladistics

... of wings", a homeoplasy would be introduced into the dataset, and it might cause erroneous ... the early vertebrates that would someday evolve into the family Hominidae can not be placed in any ... links The Willi Hennig Society Journey into Phylogenetic Systematics Tree of Life Web ...

Cloning

... until the twentieth century; the final e came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead ... one organism (for example by PCR) and insert it into a second organism (usually via a vector ), where ... of a lifeform, the "host" egg cell will develop into an organism genetically identical to the nucleus ...

Genetic code

... to as a gene . Each gene is transcribed into a short template molecule of the related polymer ... set of transfer RNAs and associated enzymes , into an amino acid chain ( polypeptide ), which will then be folded into a protein . The gene sequence inscribed in ...

Common descent

... have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed." "The whole ... several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one." The phrase "one form" here seems to hark ...

Culture

... 1960: 6). Thus labeling anything that doesn't fit into this category as chaos or anarchy. On this ... In smaller societies, in which people merely fell into categories of age , gender , household, and ... not only brought similar visual programming into many homes, but also influenced how and when ...

Diabetes mellitus

... hormone that regulates uptake of glucose into cells (primarily muscle and fat cells) from the ... to increased insulin resistance that can develop into diabetes, most likely because adipose tissue is ... water will be osmotically driven out of cells into the blood. The kidneys will also be "dumping" ...

Dialysis

... , the patient's blood is passed through a tube into a machine that filters out waste products. The ... , a special solution is run through a tube into the peritoneal cavity , the abdominal body ... antibacterial soap, and tucks a clean towel into the waistband of their pants to protect their ...

Diffusion

... water, or when smoke from a chimney dissipates into the air. In these cases, diffusion is the result ... alveolar-capillary membrane, oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out. ... When spaghetti is cooked, water molecules diffuse into the spaghetti strings, making them thicker and ...
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