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fragments in Biological Definition

Antigen

... cells (APCs), and degraded into fragments. The fragments are then presented on the surface of APCs by ... viral or intracellular bacterial infection . The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the ... CTL that do not react to normal body protein fragments are allowed to enter the bloodstream. ...

Bioinformatics

... instead the sequences of thousands of small DNA fragments (each about 600 nucleotides long). The ends of these fragments overlap and, aligned in the right way, make up ... data quickly, but the task to re-align the fragments can be quite complicated for larger genomes. In ...

Bioinformatics

... instead the sequences of thousands of small DNA fragments (each about 600 nucleotides long). The ends of these fragments overlap and, aligned in the right way, make up ... data quickly, but the task to re-align the fragments can be quite complicated for larger genomes. In ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... called base pairs . Certain methods can copy fragments up to 40 kb in size, which is still much less ... it with a DNA ladder , which contains DNA fragments of known size, also within the gel (Fig. 3). ... then amplifies them using PCR. The amplified fragments are then separated using gel electrophoresis. The ...

Restriction enzyme

... enzymes known as ligases , so that restriction fragments carved from different chromosomes or genes ... with complementary sequences enables two fragments to join or "to be spliced," which they tend to do ... enable molecular biologists to anticipate which fragments will join and how they will join--and to choose ...

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

... (PCR). The DNA is then chopped into restriction fragments by endonucleases , which only cut where there ... recognized by the enzymes. The restriction fragments are then separated according to length by ... varies between individuals: so the length of the fragments varies, and the position of certain gel bands ...

Lagging strand

... RNA to it in short bursts. Pol III lengthens the bursts, forming Okazaki fragments . Pol I then "reads" the fragments, removes the RNA, and adds its own ... DNA use slightly different kinds of nucleotides). DNA ligase joins the fragments together. ...

Antibody

... constant domains and four variable domains. If it is cleaved with enzymes papain and pepsin , we get two Fab ( f ragment b inding a ntigen) fragments and an Fc ( f ragment c rystallizable) fragment. Each half of the forked end of the "Y" shaped monomer is called the Fab fragment. It is ...

Apoptosis

... like a key and a lock, with specialized receptors in B and T cell membranes). For instance, "killer" T cells can be activated when presented with fragments of inappropriately expressed proteins (resulting, say, from a malignant mutation) or with foreign antigen produced as a consequence of a viral ...

Sticky end/blunt end

... CpApTpApCpGpA -5' becomes 5'- ApTpCpTpGpApCpT pGpApTpGpCpGpTpApTpGpCpT -3' 3'- TpApGpApCpTpGpApCpTpApCpGp CpApTpApCpGpA -5' The two fragments may then be covalently bonded by DNA ligase . Blunt ends may be ligated, but the reaction is significantly slower. These terms are most commonly ...

Cytotoxic T cell

... A cytotoxic (or T C ) T cell is a T cell (a type of white blood cell ) which has on its surface antigen receptors that can bind to fragments of antigens displayed by the Class I MHC molecules of virus infected somatic cells and tumor cells. Once activated by a MHC-antigen complex, ...

Gel electrophoresis

... from negative to positive electrodes, is due to the natural negative charge carried on their sugar - phosphate backbone. Double-stranded DNA fragments natually behave as long rods, so their migration through the gel is relative to their radius of gyration , or, roughly, size. Single-stranded DNA ...

Gel electrophoresis

... from negative to positive electrodes, is due to the natural negative charge carried on their sugar - phosphate backbone. Double-stranded DNA fragments natually behave as long rods, so their migration through the gel is relative to their radius of gyration , or, roughly, size. Single-stranded DNA ...

Genetic fingerprinting

... buccal swab . Next, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis is performed by using a restriction enzyme to cut the DNA into fragments which are separated into bands during agarose gel electrophoresis . Next, the bands of DNA are transferred via a technique called Southern ...

Helper T cell

... A helper (or T H ) T cell is a T cell (a type of white blood cell ) which has on its surface antigen receptors that can bind to fragments of antigens displayed by the Class II MHC molecules found on professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Once bound to an antigen, the T H ...

Homunculus

... a golem . However, after a short time, the homunculus would turn on its creator and run away. The recipe consisted of a bag of bones, sperm, skin fragments and hair from any animal you wanted it to be a hybrid of. This was to be laid in the ground surrounded by horse manure for forty days, at which point ...

Hydrolysis

... from the water. The amine product gains the remaining hydrogen ion. Hydrolysis can be considered as the opposite of condensation , in which two fragments are joined for each water molecule produced. As hydrolysis is a reversible reaction, condensation and hydrolysis can take place at the same time the ...

Lichen

... lack of differentiation in the thallus, the line between diaspore formation and vegetative reproduction is often blurred. Many lichens break up into fragments when they dry, dispersing themselves to resume growth when moisture returns. Lichens also reproduce sexually in a manner typical of fungi, ...

Okazaki fragment

... by RNAse H , and the last ribonucleotide is removed by and synthesized by Pol I . The nick, or a broken phosphodiester bond remaining between the fragments is linked together by DNA ligase . ...
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