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Abiogenesis

... the great calamity of the inhabitants." The first step in the scientific refutation of the theory ... was a perpetual abiogenetic fount by which the first steps in the evolution of living organisms ... in the macroscopic world. If organic matter were first sterilized and then prevented from contamination ...

Antibiotic resistance

... adaptable to antibiotic pressure. It was the first bacterium in which penicillin resistance was ... Staphylococcus aureus ) was first detected in Britain in 1961 and is now "quite ... Staphylococcus aureus ) was first identified in Japan in 1997 and has since been ...

Artificial life

... the term in the late 1980s when he held the first "International Conference on the Synthesis and ... states of the cells in an infinite grid -- the first cellular automaton . It was extraordinarily ... only eight states. He succeeded in creating the first self-replicating computer organism in October of ...

Biodiversity

... E.O. Wilson in 1986, in a report for the first American Forum on biological diversity organized ... of biodiversity For all humans, biodiversity is first a resource for daily life. Such 'crop ... Ecologists and environmentalists were the first to insist on the economic aspect of biological ...

Bacterium

... links History and taxonomy The first bacteria were observed by Antony van Leeuwenhoek ... as (lithotrophic) electron source and were the first to use the photosynthetic water splitting ... based on the composition of their cell wall. The first formal grouping of bacteria into phyla was based ...

Biochemistry

... biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme , diastase , in 1833 by Anselme Payen ... and from agriculture to medicine . The first application of biochemistry was probably the ... such as Rudolf Virchow (cellular pathology) The first biochemic association was founded in Oldenburg on ...

Biotechnology

... world 1675 Microorganisms discovered (using first microscope) 1856 Gregor Mendel discovered ... 1919 Karl Ereky , a Hungarian engineer, first used the word biotechnology 1975 Method for ... available before) 1992 FDA approves of the first GM food from Calgene : "Flavr Savr" tomato ...

Botany

... all food chains , or what ecologists call the first trophic level . Understanding how plants produce ... thaliana . This mustard weed was one of the first plants to have its genome sequenced. Other ... of Plants , Freeman. ISBN 1572590416 - A first year undergraduate level textbook James D. ...

Cancer

... cancer may cause pain , it is not always the first symptom. Roughly, cancer symptoms can be divided ... incidence of cancer in children occurs during the first year of life. Neuroblastoma is the most common ... begins in the laboratory, where scientists first develop and test new ideas. If an approach seems ...

Charles Darwin

... Family, work and development of theory 5.1 first writings on theory 6 Announcement of ... during the Beagle expedition let him study at first hand geology, fossils and a multitude of ... Lyell's enthusiastic backing Darwin read his first paper to the Geological Society of London on 4 ...

Chromatography

... (Mikhail Semyonovich Tsvet) who invented the first chromatography technique in 1901 during his ... in St.Petersburg. The first printed description was in 1903 , in the ... Society of Naturalists, section of biology. He first used the term chromatography in print in 1906 ...

Genetic code

... methionine and serves as an initiation site: the first AUG in an mRNA 's coding region is where ... of Health performed the experiments which first elucidated the correspondence between the codons ... which mutation of each of these stop codons was first detected. Translation starts with a chain ...

Common descent

... (see: origin of life ). History The first suggestion that all organisms may have had a ... arisen from one living filament, which THE GREAT first CAUSE endued with ... ( Zoonomia , ... some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed." "The whole history of the world, ...

Diabetes mellitus

... of insulin (diabetes mellitus type 1, the first recognized form), or decreased sensitivity of ... in type 2 diabetes: having relatives (especially first degree) with type 2 is a considerable risk factor ... century 7 . Until 1922 , when insulin was first discovered and made clinically available, a ...

DNA

... 9 The history of DNA research 9.1 first isolation of DNA 9.2 Establishing a link ... 1984 English geneticist Alec Jeffries , and was first used in 1986 in the Enderby murders case in ... proteins are produced from nucleic DNA. first isolation of DNA Working in the 19th century , ...

Down syndrome

... for John Langdon-Down , the British doctor who first described it. Contents ... have a child with Down syndrome. The term was first used by the editor of The Lancet in 1961 ... for memory consolidation , are among the first affected by the damage. A gradual decrease in the ...

Ebola

... caused by the Ebola virus . Ebola was first discovered in 1976 , and since its discovery, ... of the Congo (formerly Zaire), near where the first outbreak was noted by Dr. Ngoy Mushola in 1976 ... particles, is in the region of 1000 nm. The first electronmicrograph of Ebola was obtained on the ...

Enzyme

... The end products P 1 and P 2 inhibit the first committed step of their individual pathway (C->D ... to a buildup of C, which in turn inhibits the first common committed step A->B. (3) Enzyme multiplicity. Each end product inhibits both the first individual committed step and one of the enzymes ...

Bacterium

... links History and taxonomy The first bacteria were observed by Antony van Leeuwenhoek ... as (lithotrophic) electron source and were the first to use the photosynthetic water splitting ... based on the composition of their cell wall. The first formal grouping of bacteria into phyla was based ...

Eugenics

... in regards to hereditary features. The idea was first formulated by Sir Francis Galton in 1865 ... the "less fit" from reproducing). In the first half of the twentieth century , numerous ... towards the mean." Galton's theory, which he first sketched out in his 1865 article "Hereditary ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... 1 History 2 Fick's first Law 3 Fick's Second Law 4 A Biological ... by Adolf Fick in the year 1858 . Fick's first Law Fick's first Law is used in steady state diffusion , i.e., ...

Francis Galton

... Birmingham and was Charles Darwin 's half first cousin, his mother and Darwin's father having ... and heredity . In statistics , Galton was the first to describe and explain the common phenomenon of ... but their potential use in forensic work was first proposed by Dr Henry Faulds in 1880. In a ...

Gene

... is the result of more "material entity" than the first one. Mutations and evolution Just as ... History The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel , who studied ... of inherited characteristics. Mendel was also the first to hypothesize independent assortment, the ...

Genetic code

... methionine and serves as an initiation site: the first AUG in an mRNA 's coding region is where ... of Health performed the experiments which first elucidated the correspondence between the codons ... which mutation of each of these stop codons was first detected. Translation starts with a chain ...

Genetics

... variation of organisms . The word genetics was first applied to describe the study of inheritance and ... It was not until 1865 that Gregor Mendel first traced inheritance patterns of certain traits in ... 1913 Alfred Sturtevant makes the first genetic map of a chromosome 1918 Ronald ...

Photosynthesis

... the carbon dioxide that plants use. This was first proposed by C. B. van Neil in the 1930s, who ... energy. -- the purple membranes was one of the first to be used to demonstrate the chemiosmotic ... ago and were able to discover many things. A first experiment to prove that the oxygen developed ...

Homunculus

... or agent . The term appears to have been first used by the alchemist Paracelsus . He once ... virgin parchment, and bury the egg in dung on the first day of the March lunar cycle. A miniature ... reflections how to act to be intelligent he must first reflect how best to reflect how to act? The ...

Human

... are also used. The developing individual is first called a zygote ; as it grows through successive ... female's body and breathes independently for the first time, at which point the baby is recognized as a ... Ren. Discourse on Method and Meditations on first Philosophy . ( Meditations ...

Immune system

... the bacterium's DNA will not be damaged by the first enzyme because of the presence of the second ... has not been protected, and gets degraded by the first enzyme. While study of the bacterial immune ... respectively. Physical barrier The first defense includes barriers to infection such as ...

Insulin

... sugar in its urine, demonstrating for the first time the relationship between the pancreas and ... , a fourteen year old diabetic was given the first injection of insulin. Unfortunately the extract ... Lilly with an offer of help shortly after their first publications in 1921, and they took them up on ...

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

... century French naturalist, who was one of the first to use the term biology in its modern ... , for example, Darwin wrote: "Lamarck was the first man whose conclusions on the subject excited much attention. This justly celebrated naturalist first published his views in 1801. . . ...

Liver

... vitamin B12 , iron , and copper . In the first trimester fetus , the liver is the main site of ... the entire liver of the recipient. This was first performed in 1989 for pediatric liver ... have been at least two donor deaths out of the first several hundred cases. Analogous organs ...

Long-term potentiation

... in the absence of new cell growth. Among the first neuroscientists to suggest that learning was not ... of long-term potentiation LTP was first discovered in the rabbit hippocampus . In humans ... in the medial temporal lobe . LTP was first observed by Terje Lmo in 1966 in the Oslo , ...

Louis Pasteur

... techniques of inoculation , most notably the first vaccine against rabies ; however, he also made a ... studied chemistry , but showed little promise at first (one of his professors described him as ... and right-hand glove resemble one another. As the first demonstration of chiral molecules, it was quite ...

Malaria

... resistance to chloroquine which has been the first line of treatment in many countries, thus ... at Imperial College London created the world's first transgenic malaria mosquito [3] , with the first plasmodium resisting species announced by a team ...

Marcello Malpighi

... the journal of the Royal Society of England . His first article appeared there in 1661 and was about ... and he became a fellow the next year, the first such recognition given to an Italian. ... for studies on skin , kidney , and for the first interspecies comparison of the liver . He ...

Antibiotic resistance

... adaptable to antibiotic pressure. It was the first bacterium in which penicillin resistance was ... Staphylococcus aureus ) was first detected in Britain in 1961 and is now "quite ... Staphylococcus aureus ) was first identified in Japan in 1997 and has since been ...

Nutrition

... new science has rapidly expanded. Vitamins were first written about in 1912, by Sir Frederick Gowland ... to the amount of food energy consumed: this was first systematically investigated in the seminal study ... current disparity in food availability between first and third world populations (see famine and ...

Origin of life

... at the time to have existed shortly after Earth first accreted from the primordial solar nebula. The ... forward by Thomas Gold in the 1990s has life first developing not on the surface of the earth, but ... hypothesis holds that life may have formed first on early Mars , and been transported to Earth ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... for this achievement, only seven years after he first published his ideas. Mullis's idea was to develop ... could be simplified and automated. One of the first thermostable DNA-Polymerases was obtained from ... with the melting temperature of the DNA in the first step of the PCR process--is defined as the ...
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