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Energy in Biological Definition

Absorption spectrum

... , there are certain specific amounts of energy required to change state; for individual atoms, ... a higher orbit if it is given the exact amount of energy by one single photon, which is a quantum of energy. Using E = hf , a photon's energy is directly related to its frequency (and hence ...

Activation energy

... The activation energy in chemistry is the energy needed by a system to initiate a particular process. Activation energy is often used to denote the ...

Active transport

... transport , this process requires chemical energy . In this form of transport, molecules move ... primary and secondary . In primary transport energy is directly coupled to movement of desired ... Primary Primary active transport directly uses energy to transport molecules across a membrane. Most of ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... as the " molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells . ATP also plays an important role ... acids . ATP molecules are also used to store the energy plants make in cellular respiration . ...

ATPase

... . This dephosphorylation reaction releases energy , which the enzyme (in most cases) harnesses to ... ATPases harness the chemical potential energy of ATP, because they perform mechanical work : ... is an anabolic enzyme that harnesses the energy of a transmembrane proton gradient as ...

Autotroph

... light or chemical compounds as a source of energy . Plants and other organisms using ... such as hydrogen sulfide or ferrous iron for energy conservation are chemolithoautotrophs . ... are a vital part of the food chain . They take energy from the sun or from inorganic sources and ...

Bacterium

... carbon dioxide and water. Autotrophs that obtain energy by oxidizing chemical compounds are called chemotrophs , and those that obtain their energy from light, via photosynthesis , are called ... are called organotrophs . The metabolic modes of energy metabolism (phototrophy or chemotrophy), reducing ...

Calvin cycle

... in the stroma . During photosynthesis, light energy has been converted into chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH . The light-independent Calvin cycle uses the energy from these ...

Cellular respiration

... the process in which the chemical bonds of energy -rich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy usable for life processes. Oxidation of ... reaction that releases a large amount of energy rather quickly. The overall equation for the ...

Cell metabolism

... divisions: anabolism , in which a cell uses energy and reducing power to construct complex molecules ... a cell breaks down complex molecules to yield energy and reducing power. Cell metabolism involves ... is a constructive metabolic process whereby energy is consumed to synthesize or combine simpler ...

Chemiosmotic hypothesis

... a kind of electrochemical capacitor , using the energy of NADH and FADH 2 to create a proton ... the mitochondrial membrane and that this energy was used by a reversible proton pump , the ATP ... well accepted. The prevailing view was that the energy of electron transfer was stored as a stable high ...

Citric acid cycle

... Two carbons are oxidized to CO 2 , and the energy from these reactions is stored in ATP (ATP is the "universal energy currency" of the cell), NADH and FADH 2 . NADH ... that enable or enhance enzymes) that store energy and can release it when needed. Major ...

Ion gradient

... The chemiosmotic potential is used as energy storage, chemiosmotic coupling is one of several ... proton gradient can be used as an intermediate energy storage for heat production and flagellar rotation . Additionally it is an interconvertible form of energy in active transport, electron potential ...

Diffusion

... Ohm's law . In each, a flux (of atoms or energy or electrons) is equal to a physical property ... down a concentration gradient, and no additional energy has to be supplied. Compare with diffusion and ... particles diffuse in a liquid medium. Since the energy is thermal, the mass of the particles must be ...

Electrical energy

... Electrical energy or electromagnetic energy is a form of energy present in any electric field or magnetic ...

Cold-blooded

... warm-blooded animal will use up to 98% of its energy for heat production, an ectotherm has all this energy available for activity, growth, repair and ... body weight poikilotherms need 1/3 to 1/10 of the energy of homeotherms. They therefore eat only 1/3 to ...

Enzyme

... enzymes work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction, thus allowing the reaction to ... (containing a net negative Gibbs free energy ), i.e. with the enzyme, they run in the same ... This is required by the Law of Conservation of energy , which would be violated by the possibility of a ...

Bacterium

... carbon dioxide and water. Autotrophs that obtain energy by oxidizing chemical compounds are called chemotrophs , and those that obtain their energy from light, via photosynthesis , are called ... are called organotrophs . The metabolic modes of energy metabolism (phototrophy or chemotrophy), reducing ...

Cell membrane

... can be separated into those that do not consume energy in the form of ATP (passive transport) and ... transport, this process does not involve chemical energy ( ATP ). Active transport Typically moves ... the secondary active transport, transporters use energy derived from transport of another molecule in the ...

Free energy

... In thermodynamics , free energy is a measure of the amount of work that can be ... from a system. In this sense, it measures not the energy content of the system, but the "useful energy" content. In different situations, free energy is related to ...

Glucose

... carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants . Glucose is one of the ... providing 4 calories (17 kilojoules ) of food energy per gram . Breakdown of carbohydrates (e.g. ... involved in the production of ATP , the cell's energy carrier. In addition, it is critical in the ...

Glycolysis

... process by which cells of all types derive energy from sugars. It is not the most efficient, but ... This reaction consumes 1 ATP molecule, but the energy is well spent: although the cell membrane is ... 1 ATP to form fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The energy expenditure in this step is justified in 2 ways: ...

Photosynthesis

... plants , algae , and some bacteria harness the energy of light to produce food. Ultimately, nearly all living things depend on energy produced from photosynthesis for their ... the Earth's atmosphere . Organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis are called phototrophs . ...

Kinetic energy

... Kinetic energy (also called vis viva , or living force ) is energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion . The kinetic energy of a body is equal to the amount of work needed ...

Citric acid cycle

... Two carbons are oxidized to CO 2 , and the energy from these reactions is stored in ATP (ATP is the "universal energy currency" of the cell), NADH and FADH 2 . NADH ... that enable or enhance enzymes) that store energy and can release it when needed. Major ...

Lifeform

... thermodynamic state. A continuous energy input is required to maintain this state. ... procuring and metabolizing food to obtain this energy . The human lifeform has made use of other forms of energy such as fire and tools which are used for ...

Light-dependent reaction

... light-dependent reaction , which converts solar energy into chemical energy. Light absorbed by ... . ATP is a versatile source of chemical energy used in most biological processes. Note, however, ... activities along the way as the electron drops in energy level. The electrons originate when a photon of ...

Life

... Metabolism , consuming, transforming and storing energy / mass ; growing by absorbing and reorganizing ... proteins . Living organisms require both energy and matter in order to continue living. Living ... entropy to negentropy , using flow of energy . Descent with modification: a "useful" ...

Mitochondrion

... function is to convert organic materials into energy in the form of ATP . Contents ... 2 Mitochondrial functions 2.1 energy conversion 2.1.1 Pyruvate: the Krebs ... is to convert organic materials into cellular energy in the form of ATP , mitochondria play an ...

Mitochondrion

... function is to convert organic materials into energy in the form of ATP . Contents ... 2 Mitochondrial functions 2.1 energy conversion 2.1.1 Pyruvate: the Krebs ... is to convert organic materials into cellular energy in the form of ATP , mitochondria play an ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... briefly exposed to pulses of electromagnetic energy in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, ... high-energy nuclei relax and realign, they emit energy which is recorded to provide information about ... spins following the application of the transverse energy pulse; the transverse relaxation time is termed ...

Muscle

... muscular activity account for most of the body's energy consumption. Muscles store energy for their own use in the form of glycogen , ... can be rapidly converted to glucose when more energy is necessary. Nervous control Efferent ...

Nutrition

... Antioxidants are another recent discovery. Using energy in our bodies often has damaging side effects on ... through cell metabolism malfunction, and high energy levels can promote health through frequent ... is somehow related to the amount of food energy consumed: this was first systematically ...

Photon

... the symbol γ ( gamma ), although in high energy physics this refers to a high energy photon (a gamma ray ; a photon of the immediately lower energy range is denoted X , an X-ray ). ...

Light-dependent reaction

... light-dependent reaction , which converts solar energy into chemical energy. Light absorbed by ... . ATP is a versatile source of chemical energy used in most biological processes. Note, however, ... activities along the way as the electron drops in energy level. The electrons originate when a photon of ...

Photosynthesis

... plants , algae , and some bacteria harness the energy of light to produce food. Ultimately, nearly all living things depend on energy produced from photosynthesis for their ... the Earth's atmosphere . Organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis are called phototrophs . ...

Photosystem

... , it works with the antenna pigments to gain energy from a larger part of the spectrum. The pigments ... various wavelengths and pass along their gained energy to the reaction center chlorophyll. When the energy reaches the chlorophyll a, it releases two ...

Photosystem

... , it works with the antenna pigments to gain energy from a larger part of the spectrum. The pigments ... various wavelengths and pass along their gained energy to the reaction center chlorophyll. When the energy reaches the chlorophyll a, it releases two ...

Plant

... composed of cellulose , and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis , using light and carbon ... different groups of organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis. The most conspicuous are ... land plants and algae are the ultimate source of energy and organic material in nearly all habitats. ...

Cell membrane

... can be separated into those that do not consume energy in the form of ATP (passive transport) and ... transport, this process does not involve chemical energy ( ATP ). Active transport Typically moves ... the secondary active transport, transporters use energy derived from transport of another molecule in the ...
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