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cycle in Biological Definition

Coenzyme A

... fatty acid oxidization and the citric acid cycle . Its main function is to carry acyl groups ... within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle to be oxidized for energy production. The ... NADH and H + . See also Citric acid cycle HMG-CoA reductase pathway ...

Calvin cycle

... The Calvin cycle (also known as Calvin-Benson cycle ) is a series of biochemical reactions taking ... ATP and NADPH . The light-independent Calvin cycle uses the energy from these short-lived energy ...

Cell growth

... . It normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein on a tyrosine residue. This ... more than one set of chromosomes at the main life cycle stage, sex may also provide an advantage because, ... Developmental biology Stem cell Cell cycle ...

Cellular respiration

... into a mitochondrion entering the Krebs cycle . In this process it is broken down producing ... is partially broken down, but there is no Krebs cycle and no production of ATP by an electron transport ... See also Citric acid cycle Carbohydrate catabolism External ...

Citric acid cycle

... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle , the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle ) is a series of chemical reactions of central ...

Glycolysis

... , the pyruvate typically enters the citric acid cycle , and the NADH is ultimately oxidized by oxygen ... See also Gluconeogenesis Krebs cycle Anaerobic respiration External links ... in Glycolysis: Protein Data Bank Glycolytic cycle with animations Metabolism, Cellular ...

Citric acid cycle

... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle , the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle ) is a series of chemical reactions of central ...

Lambda phage

... the DNA of the host cell and enters its lytic cycle . The reactivated phage takes apart the host's ... of the cI protein and the Cro protein. The life cycle of lambda phages is controlled by cI and Cro ... but will be transformed into the lytic cycle if cro proteins predominate. The cI dimer may ...

Lytic cycle

... The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction , the other being the lysogenic cycle . These cycles should not, however, be seen as ... but rather as somewhat interchangeable. The lytic cycle is typically thought of as the main method of ...

Metabolism

... Fatty acid metabolism Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle) ... Anaerobic respiration , Cori cycle Lactic acid fermentation ... reaction (dark reaction) Calvin cycle Carbon fixation Drug ...

Mitochondrion

... conversion 2.1.1 Pyruvate: the Krebs cycle 2.1.2 NADH and FADH2: the electron transport ... or absence of oxygen . Pyruvate: the Krebs cycle Main article: Krebs cycle Each pyruvate molecule produced by glycolysis ...

Mitochondrion

... conversion 2.1.1 Pyruvate: the Krebs cycle 2.1.2 NADH and FADH2: the electron transport ... or absence of oxygen . Pyruvate: the Krebs cycle Main article: Krebs cycle Each pyruvate molecule produced by glycolysis ...

Mitosis

... stages, with the remainder of the cell's growth cycle considered interphase . Properly speaking, a typical cell cycle involves a series of stages: G1, the first ... See also Genetics Meiosis Cell cycle Daughter cell ...

Mitosis

... stages, with the remainder of the cell's growth cycle considered interphase . Properly speaking, a typical cell cycle involves a series of stages: G1, the first ... See also Genetics Meiosis Cell cycle Daughter cell ...

Urea cycle

... The Urea cycle is a cycle of biochemical reactions occurring in many ... known as ornithine cycle, was the first metabolic cycle discovered (Krebs and Hensenleit, 1932) Urea is ...

C4 carbon fixation

... conditions of drought, high temperatures and nitrogen limitation. The C 4 cycle allows for a spacial separation of carbon fixation from respiration, thus ... , a simple organic compound that gives up its CO 2 to the Calvin cycle after being shipped off to bundle sheath cells surrounding a nearby ...

Carbon fixation

... dioxide molecules taken in each time there is a turn in the Calvin cycle in the dark reactions of photosynthesis. These three carbon dioxide ... there is a net output of a single G3P ; and in two turns of the Calvin cycle when two G3P are output, then they are combined to form organic compounds, ...

Life

... itself or themselves, and of completing at least one thermodynamic work cycle Robert Pirsig 's definition of life, found in his book Lila: An ... of liquid water. See also artificial life biological life cycle origin of life (disambiguation) References Kauffman, ....

Metaphase

... = stage) is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which condensed chromosomes align in the middle of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells. One of the cell cycle "checkpoints " occurs during metaphase. Only after all chromosomes have ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... of NAD. NAD is used extensively in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle of cellular respiration . It forms NADP with the addition of a ... preliminary cycles of photosynthesis , and is used in the later Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. It is used in many other anabolic reactions in ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... of NAD. NAD is used extensively in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle of cellular respiration . It forms NADP with the addition of a ... preliminary cycles of photosynthesis , and is used in the later Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. It is used in many other anabolic reactions in ...

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

... of NAD. NAD is used extensively in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle of cellular respiration . It forms NADP with the addition of a ... preliminary cycles of photosynthesis , and is used in the later Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. It is used in many other anabolic reactions in ...

Redox

... , shock , and sepsis . See also Bioremediation Calvin cycle Citric acid cycle Electrochemistry Galvanic cell External link Redox ...

Oxidative phosphorylation

... of cellular respiration , after glycolysis and the citric acid cycle . The process takes place at a biological membrane . In prokaryotes ... ( glycolysis , conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA , and the Krebs cycle ) account for 34 of the 38 total ATP energy carrier molecules. It is ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... The PCR process consists of a series of twenty to thirty cycles. Each cycle consists of three steps (Fig. 2). (1) The double-stranded DNA has to be ... (2) Annealing at 68C. (3) Elongation at 72C (P=Polymerase). (4) The first cycle is complete. The two resulting DNA strands make up the template DNA for ...

Redox

... , shock , and sepsis . See also Bioremediation Calvin cycle Citric acid cycle Electrochemistry Galvanic cell External link Redox ...

Twin

... in the uterine wall at about the same time, within the same menstrual cycle , or in rare cases within one menstrual cycle of each other. The two eggs form two zygotes, and these twins are ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... of batteries . See also Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) ATPases ATP hydrolysis Citric acid cycle (also called the Krebs cycle) Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) Phosphagen Thioesters are related to ATP External link ...

Alga

... developed independently among several of the groups. Some of the more common organizational levels, more than one of which may occur in the life cycle of a species, are: Colonial - small, regular groups of motile cells Capsoid - individual non-motile cells embedded in mucilage ...

Antigen

... apoptosis of the infected cell. In order to keep the cytotoxic cells from killing cells just for presenting normal proteins, they run through a test cycle (negative control in the thymus ) just after their production. Only those CTL that do not react to normal body protein fragments are allowed to ...

ATP synthase

... synthase). The enzyme is integrated into thylakoid membrane; the CF 1 -part sticks into stroma , were dark reactions of photosynthesis ( Calvin cycle ) and ATP synthesis take place. The overall structure and the catalytic mechanism of the chloroplast ATP synthase are almost the same as those of the ...

Bacterial conjugation

... strand is inserted into the recipiane bacterium (5'-end first). The now single-stranded plasmid is filled up with a complementary strand by a rolling cycle mechanism. If the F-plasmid is integrated, the transferred DNA consists of the F-plasmid sequence plus an amount of chomosomal DNA from the donor ...

Biodiversity

... provide some kind of function to an ecosystem. They can capture and store energy, produce organic material, decompose organic material, help to cycle water and nutrients throughout the ecosystem, control erosion or pests, fix atmospheric gases, or help regulate climate. Ecosystems also provide ...

Bioinformatics

... of states of an organism to form hypotheses about the genes involved in each state. In a single-cell organism, one might compare stages of the cell cycle , along with various stress conditions (heat shock, starvation, etc.). One can then apply clustering algorithms to that expression data to ...

Biochemistry

... allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell , such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle). Today, the findings of biochemistry are used in many areas, from genetics to molecular biology and from agriculture to ...

Carbohydrate

... to be removed from the blood. Catabolism There are three metabolic pathways of carbohydrate catabolism : glycolysis citric acid cycle oxidative phosphorylation See also Biochemistry Macromolecules Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Pentose phosphate ...

Cell division

... cells, on the other hand, are "immortal." An enzyme called telomerase allows them to continue dividing indefinitely. See also Cell cycle Cell growth External link How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis ...

Charles Darwin

... of Lamarck and Charles' grandfather Erasmus about evolution by acquired characteristics. He joined Grant in pioneering investigations of the life cycle of marine animals on the shores of the Firth of Forth where Grant found evidence for homology , the radical theory that all animals had similar ...

Chloroplast

... golden, brown, or red and show variation in the number of membranes and the presence of thylakoids. See also Chloroplast membrane Calvin cycle External links Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis: The Role of Light from Kimball's Biology Pages Chloroplast, Botany Sources ...

Bioinformatics

... of states of an organism to form hypotheses about the genes involved in each state. In a single-cell organism, one might compare stages of the cell cycle , along with various stress conditions (heat shock, starvation, etc.). One can then apply clustering algorithms to that expression data to ...
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