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code in Biological Definition

Alternative splicing

... coding for the pre-mRNA An additional DNA code or other regulating process, which regulates the ... encoding for amino acids . The intron's code must be properly expressible, otherwise a stop ... could lead to the same effect, but leaving the code for the established proteins unharmed. Another ...

Biology

... Universality: biochemistry, cells and the genetic code 1.2 Evolution: the central principle of ... Universality: biochemistry, cells and the genetic code Main article: Life There are many ... nucleic acid DNA using a universal genetic code . In development the theme of universal ...

Genetic code

... The genetic code is a set of rules, which maps DNA sequences ... same genetic code, called the standard genetic code , although a few organisms use minor variations ... 4.1 Stop Codons 4.2 Degeneracy of the genetic code 4.3 Phase or reading frame of a sequence ...

Common descent

... conclusion by the universality of the genetic code (see below). Evidence for common descent ... and similarity The universality of the genetic code is generally regarded by biologists as ... Analysis of the small differences in the genetic code has also provided support for UCD. The Tree of ...

DNA

... translation , known collectively as the genetic code . The genetic code is made up of three-letter 'words' (termed a ... by Crick and coworkers deciphered the genetic code not long afterward. These findings represent the ...

Genetic code

... The genetic code is a set of rules, which maps DNA sequences ... same genetic code, called the standard genetic code , although a few organisms use minor variations ... 4.1 Stop Codons 4.2 Degeneracy of the genetic code 4.3 Phase or reading frame of a sequence ...

Genetics

... final phenotype of the organism. The phrase to code for is often used to mean a gene contains the ... Tatum and George Wells Beadle show that genes code for proteins ; see the original central dogma ... replicated 1961 The genetic code is arranged in triplets 1964 Howard Temin ...

Secondary structure

... 1 Proteins 1.1 The DSSP code 2 RNA 3 Alignment 4 Prediction 5 References Proteins The DSSP code The DSSP code is frequently used to describe the protein ...

Amino acid

... proteins . Twenty amino acids are encoded by the standard genetic code and are called proteinogenic or standard amino acids . Rarer, more ... structures and symbols of the 20 amino acids represented in the genetic code . Chemical properties Following is a table listing the one ...

Morphogenesis

... that are differentially localized within the oocyte. The genes that code for these differentially localized oocyte mRNAs are called maternal ... pattern is initiated by the pair-rule genes (like even-skipped ) that code for transcription factors that regulate the engrailed gene's ...

Endosymbiotic theory

... circular and in its size). Mitochondria utilize a different genetic code than the eukaryotic host cell; this code is very similar to bacteria and Archaea . They are surrounded by two ...

Evolution

... as the building blocks for proteins . All organisms use the same genetic code (with some extremely rare and minor deviations) to translate nucleic ... share certain traits, including the cellular structure, and the genetic code . Most scientists interpret this to mean all existing organisms share a ...

Gene

... DNA of a gene encodes the chemical structure of a protein . The genetic code determines the sequence of the amino acids that make up a protein. The ... in certain steps in metabolic pathways . This showed that specific genes code for specific proteins, leading to the "one gene, one enzyme" hypothesis. ...

Gene duplication

... that exists after a gene duplication event are paralogs. Paralogs usually code for proteins with different function and/or structure as stated above. This is opposed to orthologous genes that code for proteins with similar function but that exists in different species. ...

Morphogenesis

... that are differentially localized within the oocyte. The genes that code for these differentially localized oocyte mRNAs are called maternal ... pattern is initiated by the pair-rule genes (like even-skipped ) that code for transcription factors that regulate the engrailed gene's ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... design is based on protein sequence . As several different codons can code for one amino acid , it is often difficult to deduce which codon is used ... thymine , and H for adenine , thymine , or cytosine . (See genetic code for further details about codons ) Use of degenerate primers can greatly ...

Primer

... design is based on protein sequence . As several different codons can code for one amino acid , it is often difficult to deduce which codon is used ... thymine , and H for adenine , thymine , or cytosine . (See genetic code for further details about codons ) Use of degenerate primers can greatly ...

Wobble base pair

... Wobble base pairs are critical for the proper translation of the genetic code . The genetic code makes up for disparities in the number of amino acids (20) for codons (64) ...

Barr body

... is initiated from the X inactivation centre or Xic , usually found near the centromere . The centre contains twelve genes, seven of which code for proteins , five for untranslated RNAs , of which only two are known to play an active role in the X inactivation process, Xist and Tsix. ...

Bioinformatics

... in 1977 , the DNA sequence of more and more organisms is stored in electronic databases. These data are analyzed to determine genes that code for proteins , as well as regulatory sequences. A comparison of genes within a species or between different species can show similarities between ...

Biochemistry

... the properties of proteins. The biochemistry of cell metabolism has been extensively described. Other areas of biochemistry include the genetic code ( DNA , RNA ), protein synthesis , cell membrane transport, and signal transduction . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 ...

Biophysics

... Maurice Wilkins & Rosalind Franklin , pioneers of DNA crystallography Francis Crick , co-discover of DNA structure and the genetic code Max Perutz & John Kendrew , pioneers of protein crystallography Other notable biophysicists Howard Berg , characterized ...

Classical genetics

... on the chromosomes . Linkage maps are still used today, especially in breeding for plant improvement . After the discovery of the genetic code and such tools of cloning as restriction enzymes , the avenues of investigation open to geneticists were greatly broadened. Some classical ...

Cladistics

... in its older sense, where it includes paraphyly, and use the alternate term holophyly to describe clades ( monophyly sensu Hennig). A formal code of phylogenetic nomenclature, the PhyloCode , is currently under development for cladistic taxonomy. It is intended for use by both those who would ...

Bioinformatics

... in 1977 , the DNA sequence of more and more organisms is stored in electronic databases. These data are analyzed to determine genes that code for proteins , as well as regulatory sequences. A comparison of genes within a species or between different species can show similarities between ...

Endosymbiont

... with the appropriate amino acids , and (2) after the Buchnera genome was sequenced, analysis uncovered a large number of genes that likely code for amino acid biosynthesis genes; most bacteria that live inside other organisms do not have such genes, so their existence in Buchnera is ...

Endosymbiont

... with the appropriate amino acids , and (2) after the Buchnera genome was sequenced, analysis uncovered a large number of genes that likely code for amino acid biosynthesis genes; most bacteria that live inside other organisms do not have such genes, so their existence in Buchnera is ...

Eukaryote

... Origin and evolution The origin of the eukaryotic cell was a milestone in the evolution of life. Although eukaryotes use the same genetic code and metabolic processes as prokaryotes, their higher level of organizational complexity has permitted the development of truly multicellular ...

Francis Crick

... significant contributions in laying the foundations of the now mature field of molecular biology . This includes work on the nature of the genetic code and the mechanisms of protein synthesis . He later left molecular biology for his other interest, consciousness . His autobiographical book What ...

Genetic fingerprinting

... foods. It has also been used to generate hypotheses on the pattern of the human diaspora in prehistoric times. Testing is subject to the legal code of the jurisdiction in which it is performed. Usually the testing is voluntary, but it can be made compulsory by such instruments as a search ...

Har Gobind Khorana

... . Khorana was awarded the 1968 Nobel Prize in Medicine (together with Robert W. Holley and Marshall W. Nirenberg ) for describing the genetic code and how it operates in protein synthesis . Khorana's synthetic RNA approach RNAs with two repeating units (UCUCUCU → UCU CUC UCU) ...

Homeobox

... loose analogy to computing , one can think of a homeobox gene like a call to a subroutine . It switches on the production of a whole subsystem, the code for which must already be present elsewhere in the DNA. See also Evolutionary developmental biology Reference External ...

Life

... prions are not counted as such), the genetic material is primarily DNA or the related molecule, RNA . Another exception might be the software code of certain forms of viruses and programs created through genetic programming , but whether computer programs can be alive even by this ...

Mitochondrion

... ribosomes and their own genetic material. Mitochondrial DNA is circular and employs characteristic variants of the standard eukaryotic genetic code . These and similar pieces of evidence motivate the endosymbiotic theory — that mitochondria originated as prokaryotic endosymbionts . ...

Mitochondrion

... ribosomes and their own genetic material. Mitochondrial DNA is circular and employs characteristic variants of the standard eukaryotic genetic code . These and similar pieces of evidence motivate the endosymbiotic theory — that mitochondria originated as prokaryotic endosymbionts . ...

Neurospora crassa

... in metabolic pathways caused by errors in specific enzymes . This led to the "one gene, one enzyme" hypothesis that states that specific genes code for specific proteins . In the 24 April 2003 issue of Nature , the genome of N. crassa was reported as completely sequenced . The genome ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... the theory regards these genome features as neither subject to, nor explicable by, natural selection. This view is based in part on the genetic code , according to which sequences of three nucleotides ( codons ) may differ and yet encode the same amino acid ( GCC and GCA both encode alanine ...

Nucleotide

... Nucleotide codes code Equivalence Complement A A T or U C C G G G C T or U T A M A or C K ...

Olfaction

... As discovered by Linda B. Buck and Richard Axel , mammals generally have about 1000 genes for odor receptors . Of these genes, only a portion code for functional odor receptors. Humans have 347 functional odor receptor genes; the other genes have nonsense mutations . This number was determined ...

Phage

... , are then copied with every cell division together with the DNA of the host cell. They do not kill the cell, but monitor ( via some proteins they code for) the status of their host. When the host cell shows signs of stress (meaning it might be about to die soon), the endogenous phages become active ...
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