... three-dimensional network inside an eukariotic cell
. Actin filaments provide mechanical support for the cell, determine the cell
shape, enable cell
movements (through pseudopods ); and participate ...
... oxygen atmosphere. They have a prokaryotic cell
structure typical of bacteria and conduct ...
Coccoid - individual non-motile cells with cell
Palmelloid - non-motile cells embedded ... presence of reproductive organs with protective cell
layers, a characteristic not found in the other ...
... Each chromatid moves to opposite poles of the cell
(opposite ends of the nuclear spindle ).
... opposing pole (overlap microtubules) or with the cell
cortex; these are astral microtubules .
... on astral microtubules that have attached to the cell
The contributions of anaphase A and ...
Drugs which interfere with cell
Polymyxin B, gramicidin
... and molecular physiology of the bacterial cell
and that of the mammalian cell. In contrast, ... humans, the basic biochemistries of the fungal cell
and the ...
... antigen. In some cases the interaction of the B cell
with a T helper cell
is also necessary.
Structure of the ... is the same by all immunoglobulins of the same B cell
. Heavy chains γ, α and δ have ...
... with skin.
Antigens are presented by a cell
to its environment via a histocompatibility ... generated within the cell, as a result of normal cell
metabolism , or because of viral or ... . The fragments are then presented on the cell
surface in the complex with class I ...
...  ) is one of the main types of programmed cell
death (PCD). As such, it is a process of deliberate suicide by an unwanted cell
in a multicellular organism . In contrast to necrosis , which is a form of cell
death that results from acute tissue injury, ...
... similar to other prokaryotes in most aspects of cell
structure and metabolism . However, their ... apart. Unlike most bacteria, they have a single cell
membrane that lacks a peptidoglycan wall. ... but runs into difficulties explaining cell
... in blood plasma and lymph ) involves B cell
activation . cell
activation can be gauged using the ELISPOT ... by the presence of CD20 on the cell
Susumu Tonegawa won the 1987 ...
... and molecular genetics . At the level of the cell
, it is studied in cell
biology and at multicellular scales, it is ... have nuclei or not as well as differences in cell
There is also a series of ...
... and mostly unicellular, with a relatively simple cell
structure lacking a cell
nucleus , cytoskeleton, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts . Their cell
structure is further described in the article ...
... properties of proteins.
The biochemistry of cell
metabolism has been extensively described. Other ... code ( DNA , RNA ), protein synthesis , cell
membrane transport, and signal transduction .
... many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell
, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle ...
... which acts as a barrier within or around a cell
. It is a lipid bilayer , being composed of a ... around peroxisomes shields the rest of the cell
from peroxides , and the plasma membrane separates a cell
from its surrounding medium. Most organelles ...
Chemistry , molecular biology , and cell
biology have much to offer in the way of ... biomechanics ranges from the inner workings of a cell
to the movement and development of limbs , the ... Cardiomyocytes are a highly specialized cell
type. These involuntarily contracted cells are ...
Full blood count
... electrical impedance .
Because an automated cell
counter samples and counts so many cells, it ... of the absolute number of each type of white cell
can be obtained.
Manual counting has the ... is called anemia .)
Hematocrit or packed cell
volume (PCV) - This is the fraction of whole ...
... in which fundamental life processes (like cell
division and protein synthesis for example) ... studied and provided important insights into cell
Early botany (before 1945)
Plant tissues , plant growth and the plant cell
from Kimball's Biology Pages
... group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell
division and the ability of these cells to ... to aberrant growth regulation of cells.
multiplication ( proliferation ) is a normal ... ). Normally the balance between proliferation and cell
death is tightly regulated to ensure the ...
division is the process of a biological cell
(called a mother cell
) dividing into two daughter cells . This leads ...
biology (also called cellular biology or ... both on a microscopic and molecular level. cell
biology researches both single-celled organisms ... the similarities and differences between cell
types is particularly important to the fields ...
... In cell
biology , the nucleus (from Latin nucleus ... contain genes which are not expressed by the cell
(this type of heterochromatin is known as ... DNA that constitute heterochromatin vary between cell
Nucleoli are densely-stained structures ...
... The term cell
growth is used in two different ways in biology ... growth" is shorthand for the idea of "growth in cell
numbers by means of cell
... Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell
. The overall reaction can be expressed this ... mitochondria in eukaryotic cells , and at the cell
membrane in prokaryotic cells .
Anaerobic ... produces no ATP, it is useful to the cell
because it regenerates nicotinamide adenine ...
metabolism is the process (or really the sum of ... two distinct divisions: anabolism , in which a cell
uses energy and reducing power to construct ... cellular structure; and catabolism , in which a cell
breaks down complex molecules to yield energy and ...
... centriole , an organelle , is the portion of a cell
where microtubules are manufactured. Its structure, since it acts as a nexus for cell
activity, facilitates cell
In animal cells, as well as those of ...
... event of endosymbiosis, where an eukaryotic cell
joined with a second eukaryotic cell
containing chloroplasts, forming chloroplasts ... most of their proteins are synthesized by the cell
Within the stroma are stacks of ...
... are histone proteins . In a eukaryotic cell
, nearly all DNA is found compacted in chromatin. ... the size of the molecule and to allow the cell
to control expression of the chromatin packaged ... above. During spermiogenesis , the male germ cell
's chromatin is remodelled into a more tightly ...
... cilia ) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell
. There are two types of cilia: (1) motile ... cell. The outer segment of the rod photoreceptor cell
in the human eye is connected to its cell
body with a specialized non-motile cilium. The ...
... in the biological sense, therefore, is a single cell
(like bacteria , lymphocytes etc.) or ... In a modern context, this can involve somatic cell
nuclear transfer in which the nucleus is removed from an egg cell
and replaced with a nucleus extracted from ...
... DNA sequences to proteins in the living cell
, and is employed in the process of protein ... such as the single-base substitution in sickle cell
anaemia is disasterous. The hydrophilic ... between the valine groups causing sickle cell
deformation of erythrocytes.
These variable ...
... , semi-fluid matter contained within the cell
's plasma membrane , in which organelles are ... protoplasm , the cytoplasm does not include the cell
nucleus , the interior of which is made up of ... in movement. In general, margin regions of the cell
are gel-like and the cell's interior is liquid.
... . It is a dynamic structure that maintains cell
shape, enables some cell
motion (using structures such as flagella and ... the internal tridimensional structure of the cell
(they are structural components of the nuclear ...
Cytotoxic T cell
... A cytotoxic (or T C ) T cell
is a T cell
(a type of white blood cell
) which has on its surface antigen receptors that ...
... the organelles ) is the internal fluid of the cell
, and a large part of cell
metabolism occurs here. Proteins within the ... In eukaryotes , the cytosol contains the cell
organelles . In plants, the amount of cytosol ...
... biology studies the genetic control of cell
growth , differentiation and " morphogenesis ," ... that occurs during development is apoptosis - cell
"suicide". For this reason, many develpmental ... control in the various differentiated cell
types allows each type ...
... is the normal number of chromosomes within a cell
for a species, for example the euploid number of chromosomes in a human cell
Contents ... haploid gametes . During meiosis , germ cell
precursors have their number of chromosomes ...
... or the application of external force . In cell
biology , diffusion is described as a form of " ...
2 Types of diffusion
2.1 Diffusion in cell
2.1.1 Diffusion in the ...
Types of diffusion
Diffusion in cell
Diffusion in the respiratory system ...
... to offspring.
In bacteria and other simple cell
organisms, DNA is not separated from the ... , by contrast, most of the DNA is located in the cell
nucleus . The energy -generating organelles ... of copying the double-stranded DNA prior to cell
division . The two resulting double strands are ...
... developmental biology along with the control of cell
growth and cellular differentiation . ... and the positions of the various specialized cell
growth and differentiation can take place ...
... technique, which "clamp" or maintain the cell
potential (voltage-clamp ) or current ... on the other hand, is used to study cell
excitability by analyzing the action potentials ... establish electrical contact with the inside of a cell
or tissue with a "glass electrode." Such an ...
... of proteins that are to become part of the cell
membrane (e.g., transmembrane receptors and ... are to be secreted or " exocytosed " from the cell
(e.g., digestive enzymes ).
Contents ... carbohydrate metabolism , detoxification of the cell
(enzymes in the smooth ER detoxify chemicals), ...