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cell in Biological Definition

Actin

... three-dimensional network inside an eukariotic cell . Actin filaments provide mechanical support for the cell, determine the cell shape, enable cell movements (through pseudopods ); and participate ...

Alga

... oxygen atmosphere. They have a prokaryotic cell structure typical of bacteria and conduct ... Coccoid - individual non-motile cells with cell walls Palmelloid - non-motile cells embedded ... presence of reproductive organs with protective cell layers, a characteristic not found in the other ...

Anaphase

... Each chromatid moves to opposite poles of the cell (opposite ends of the nuclear spindle ). ... opposing pole (overlap microtubules) or with the cell cortex; these are astral microtubules . ... on astral microtubules that have attached to the cell cortex. The contributions of anaphase A and ...

Antibiotic

... (rifampicin) Drugs which interfere with cell membrane function Polymyxin B, gramicidin ... and molecular physiology of the bacterial cell and that of the mammalian cell. In contrast, ... humans, the basic biochemistries of the fungal cell and the ...

Antibody

... antigen. In some cases the interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is also necessary. Structure of the ... is the same by all immunoglobulins of the same B cell . Heavy chains γ, α and δ have ...

Antigen

... with skin. Antigens are presented by a cell to its environment via a histocompatibility ... generated within the cell, as a result of normal cell metabolism , or because of viral or ... . The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex with class I ...

Apoptosis

... [1] ) is one of the main types of programmed cell death (PCD). As such, it is a process of deliberate suicide by an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism . In contrast to necrosis , which is a form of cell death that results from acute tissue injury, ...

Archaea

... similar to other prokaryotes in most aspects of cell structure and metabolism . However, their ... apart. Unlike most bacteria, they have a single cell membrane that lacks a peptidoglycan wall. ... but runs into difficulties explaining cell structure. External links Archaea ...

B cell

... in blood plasma and lymph ) involves B cell activation . cell activation can be gauged using the ELISPOT ... by the presence of CD20 on the cell membrane. Susumu Tonegawa won the 1987 ...

Biology

... and molecular genetics . At the level of the cell , it is studied in cell biology and at multicellular scales, it is ... have nuclei or not as well as differences in cell exteriors. There is also a series of ...

Bacterium

... and mostly unicellular, with a relatively simple cell structure lacking a cell nucleus , cytoskeleton, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts . Their cell structure is further described in the article ...

Biochemistry

... properties of proteins. The biochemistry of cell metabolism has been extensively described. Other ... code ( DNA , RNA ), protein synthesis , cell membrane transport, and signal transduction . ... many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell , such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle ...

Biological membrane

... which acts as a barrier within or around a cell . It is a lipid bilayer , being composed of a ... around peroxisomes shields the rest of the cell from peroxides , and the plasma membrane separates a cell from its surrounding medium. Most organelles ...

Biomechanics

... Chemistry , molecular biology , and cell biology have much to offer in the way of ... biomechanics ranges from the inner workings of a cell to the movement and development of limbs , the ... Cardiomyocytes are a highly specialized cell type. These involuntarily contracted cells are ...

Full blood count

... electrical impedance . Because an automated cell counter samples and counts so many cells, it ... of the absolute number of each type of white cell can be obtained. Manual counting has the ... is called anemia .) Hematocrit or packed cell volume (PCV) - This is the fraction of whole ...

Botany

... in which fundamental life processes (like cell division and protein synthesis for example) ... studied and provided important insights into cell biology. Early botany (before 1945) Among ... Plant tissues , plant growth and the plant cell from Kimball's Biology Pages Botanical ...

Cancer

... group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division and the ability of these cells to ... to aberrant growth regulation of cells. cell multiplication ( proliferation ) is a normal ... ). Normally the balance between proliferation and cell death is tightly regulated to ensure the ...

Cell division

... cell division is the process of a biological cell (called a mother cell ) dividing into two daughter cells . This leads ...

Cell biology

... cell biology (also called cellular biology or ... both on a microscopic and molecular level. cell biology researches both single-celled organisms ... the similarities and differences between cell types is particularly important to the fields ...

Cell nucleus

... In cell biology , the nucleus (from Latin nucleus ... contain genes which are not expressed by the cell (this type of heterochromatin is known as ... DNA that constitute heterochromatin vary between cell types. Nucleoli are densely-stained structures ...

Cell growth

... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology ... growth" is shorthand for the idea of "growth in cell numbers by means of cell reproduction." ...

Cellular respiration

... Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell . The overall reaction can be expressed this ... mitochondria in eukaryotic cells , and at the cell membrane in prokaryotic cells . Anaerobic ... produces no ATP, it is useful to the cell because it regenerates nicotinamide adenine ...

Cell metabolism

... cell metabolism is the process (or really the sum of ... two distinct divisions: anabolism , in which a cell uses energy and reducing power to construct ... cellular structure; and catabolism , in which a cell breaks down complex molecules to yield energy and ...

Centrosome

... centriole , an organelle , is the portion of a cell where microtubules are manufactured. Its structure, since it acts as a nexus for cell activity, facilitates cell division . In animal cells, as well as those of ...

Chloroplast

... event of endosymbiosis, where an eukaryotic cell joined with a second eukaryotic cell containing chloroplasts, forming chloroplasts ... most of their proteins are synthesized by the cell nucleus. Within the stroma are stacks of ...

Chromatin

... are histone proteins . In a eukaryotic cell , nearly all DNA is found compacted in chromatin. ... the size of the molecule and to allow the cell to control expression of the chromatin packaged ... above. During spermiogenesis , the male germ cell 's chromatin is remodelled into a more tightly ...

Cilium

... cilia ) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell . There are two types of cilia: (1) motile ... cell. The outer segment of the rod photoreceptor cell in the human eye is connected to its cell body with a specialized non-motile cilium. The ...

Cloning

... in the biological sense, therefore, is a single cell (like bacteria , lymphocytes etc.) or ... In a modern context, this can involve somatic cell nuclear transfer in which the nucleus is removed from an egg cell and replaced with a nucleus extracted from ...

Genetic code

... DNA sequences to proteins in the living cell , and is employed in the process of protein ... such as the single-base substitution in sickle cell anaemia is disasterous. The hydrophilic ... between the valine groups causing sickle cell deformation of erythrocytes. These variable ...

Cytoplasm

... , semi-fluid matter contained within the cell 's plasma membrane , in which organelles are ... protoplasm , the cytoplasm does not include the cell nucleus , the interior of which is made up of ... in movement. In general, margin regions of the cell are gel-like and the cell's interior is liquid. ...

Cytoskeleton

... . It is a dynamic structure that maintains cell shape, enables some cell motion (using structures such as flagella and ... the internal tridimensional structure of the cell (they are structural components of the nuclear ...

Cytotoxic T cell

... A cytotoxic (or T C ) T cell is a T cell (a type of white blood cell ) which has on its surface antigen receptors that ...

Cytosol

... the organelles ) is the internal fluid of the cell , and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here. Proteins within the ... In eukaryotes , the cytosol contains the cell organelles . In plants, the amount of cytosol ...

Developmental biology

... biology studies the genetic control of cell growth , differentiation and " morphogenesis ," ... that occurs during development is apoptosis - cell "suicide". For this reason, many develpmental ... control in the various differentiated cell types allows each type ...

Ploidy

... is the normal number of chromosomes within a cell for a species, for example the euploid number of chromosomes in a human cell is 46. Contents ... haploid gametes . During meiosis , germ cell precursors have their number of chromosomes ...

Diffusion

... or the application of external force . In cell biology , diffusion is described as a form of " ... 2 Types of diffusion 2.1 Diffusion in cell biology 2.1.1 Diffusion in the ... Types of diffusion Diffusion in cell biology Diffusion in the respiratory system ...

DNA

... to offspring. In bacteria and other simple cell organisms, DNA is not separated from the ... , by contrast, most of the DNA is located in the cell nucleus . The energy -generating organelles ... of copying the double-stranded DNA prior to cell division . The two resulting double strands are ...

Morphogenesis

... developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation . ... and the positions of the various specialized cell types. cell growth and differentiation can take place ...

Electrophysiology

... technique, which "clamp" or maintain the cell potential (voltage-clamp ) or current ... on the other hand, is used to study cell excitability by analyzing the action potentials ... establish electrical contact with the inside of a cell or tissue with a "glass electrode." Such an ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... of proteins that are to become part of the cell membrane (e.g., transmembrane receptors and ... are to be secreted or " exocytosed " from the cell (e.g., digestive enzymes ). Contents ... carbohydrate metabolism , detoxification of the cell (enzymes in the smooth ER detoxify chemicals), ...
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