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base in Biological Definition

Alcohol

... alkoxide salt is either performed with a strong base such as sodium hydride or n-butyllithium , or ... with an acid chloride in the presence of a base such as pyridine . Other types of ester are ... reaction ) in the presence of the halogen and a base such as sodium hydroxide . See also ...

Anticodon

... mRNA . See also protein synthesis . The first base on the anticodon can be modified to another nucleotide such as inosine which allows that base to pair with cytosine , adenine , and uracil on the codon. The first base on the anticodon can also have a uracil which ...

Genetic code

... the amino acid each codon codes for. 2nd base U C A G 1st base U UUU (Phe/F) Phenylalanine UUC (Phe/F) ... possible because of modified bases in the first base of the anticodon , and the basepair formed is ...

DNA

... can be abbreviated A , T , C , and G ; each base "pairs up" with only one other base: A+T, T+A, ... just four possible combinations, naming only one base on the conventionally chosen side of the strand ... "bases" can only combine with one other base, the base on the old strand dictates ...

Genetic code

... the amino acid each codon codes for. 2nd base U C A G 1st base U UUU (Phe/F) Phenylalanine UUC (Phe/F) ... possible because of modified bases in the first base of the anticodon , and the basepair formed is ...

Leaf

... (small processes located to either side of the base of the petiole). The point at which the petiole ... , is an appendage on each side at the base of the petiole, resembling a small leaf. They may ... (apples). Three main veins originate from the base of the lamina, as in Ceanothus . ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... short DNA fragments, usually up to 10 kb (kb=kilo base pairs=1000 base pairs). DNA is double-stranded, and therefore, it ... DNA building blocks (nucleic acids) called base pairs . Certain methods can copy fragments up to ...

Primer

... double-stranded, its length is measured in base pairs. The length of single-stranded DNA is ... where Δ H is the enthalpy of base stacking interactions adjusted for helix initiation factors Δ S is the entropy of base stacking adjusted for helix initiation factors ...

Wobble base pair

... A wobble base pair is a G-U and I-U / I-A / I-C pair ... thermodynamic stability of the Watson-Crick base pair . Wobble base pairs are critical for the proper translation of ...

Human Genome Project

... (HGP) endeavored to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair ) level and to identify all the genes present in it. ... The goals of the original HGP were not only to determine all 3 billion base pairs in the human genome with a minimal error rate, but also to identify ...

Macromolecule

... Chemistry asserted that DNA in nature is never longer than about 5000 base pairs . This is because biochemists were inadvertently and with perfect ... into pieces. In fact, the DNA of chromosomes can be tens of millions of base pairs long. Another common macromolecular property that does not ...

Proteasome

... about 15 nm long and 11.5 nm wide. Each 19S unit consists of a lid and a base with a 19S regulatory particle is attached to each end of the 20S core particle via its base. Some of the subunits in the base are ATPases . External links PLOS Primer: The Proteasome and the ...

Secondary structure

... RNA secondary structure is generally divided into helices (contiguous base pairs), and various kinds of loops (unpaired nucleotides surrounded by ... form helices. RNA secondary structure can also include pseudoknots and base triples. For many RNA molecules, the secondary structure is highly ...

Y chromosome

... the 23 pairs of human chromosomes. The Y chromosome spans about 50 million base pairs (the building material of DNA ) and represents between 1.5 and 2 ... discovered that many of the sequences of chemical units -- called bases or base pairs -- that carry genetic information on the Y chromosome are arranged ...

Alga

... algae, called seaweeds , grow mostly in shallow water and provide distinctive habitats. Microscopic forms, called phytoplankton , provide the food base for marine food chains . Phytoplankton can be present in high densities, called algal blooms , which might be visible as a discoloration of the ...

Ames test

... contamination of the strain. Strains of bacteria are available which have been genetically modified such that only a certain type of mutation (i.e. a base pair mutation or a frameshift mutation) will cause the strand to revert to a normal state, not requiring nutrients to grow. If the mutation screened ...

ATP synthase

... as resembling the fruiting body of a common mushroom, with the head being the F 1 particle, the stalk being the gamma subunit of F 1 , and the base and "roots" being the F O particle embedded in the membrane. The F 1 particle was first isolated by Ephraim Racker in 1961. The F 1 particle ...

Axon

... but may extend to macroscopic lengths. The longest axons in the human body, for example, are those of the sciatic nerve , which run from the base of the spine to the big toe of each foot. These single-cell fibers may extend a metre or even longer. In vertebrates generally, the axons ...

Bacterial conjugation

... F-factor) is an episome (a plasmid that can integrate itself into the bacterial chromosome by genetic recombination ) of about 100 kb (kilo base pairs ) length. It carries its own origin of replication , called oriV . There can only be one copy of the F-plasmid in a bacterium (which is then ...

Sticky end/blunt end

... the two possible configurations resulting from the breaking of double-stranded DNA . DNA exhibits a stabilizing interaction between complementary base pairs , providing specificity to the pairing of two strands of DNA. If two complementary strands of DNA are of equal length, then they will ...

Botany

... foods and other fruit and vegetables , or indirectly through livestock which rely on plants for fodder . In other words, plants are at the base of nearly all food chains , or what ecologists call the first trophic level . Understanding how plants produce the food we eat is therefore ...

Cilium

... cilia do not have the two central microtubule singlets and do not have dyneins. This configuration of axoneme is referred as a "9 + 0" type. At the base of the cilium is its microtubule organization center called a basal body . Basal body is structurally identical to and functionally ...

Chromosomal crossover

... of the same chromosome, break and then reconnect but to the different end piece. If they break at the same place or locus in the sequence of base pairs, the result is an exchange of genes . This outcome is the normal way for crossover to occur. If they break at slightly different loci, the ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... macromolecules , and transfers substances throughout the cell. Prokaryotic organisms do not have organelles and thus do not have an ER. ER's base structure and composition is similar to the plasma membrane , though it is an extension of the nuclear membrane . The ER is the site of the ...

Enhancer

... need to bind close to the transcription initiation site to affect its transcription, as some have been found to bind several hundreds of thousands base pairs upstream or downstream of the start site. Enhancers can also be found inside introns . An enhancer's orientation may even be reversed ...

Flagellum

... single microtubules. The so-called "9+2"" structure is the characteritics of the core of the eukaryotic flugellum called an axoneme . At the base of a eukaryotic flagellum is a basal body or kinetosome, which is the microtubule organizing center for flagellar microtubules and is about 500 ...

Gene

... exist to prove that a DNA sequence contains no gene. Nonetheless, estimates are made based on current knowledge. organism genes base pairs Plant <50,000 11 Human 25,000 3×10 9 Fly 12,000 1.6×10 8 Honey bee ...

Genomics

... similarity It is often stated that a particular organism shares X percent of its DNA with humans . This number indicates the percentage of base pairs that are identical between the two species. Here is a list of genetic similarity to humans, with sources, where known. While these numbers ...

Glycome

... Glycome Project: A Sugar Coated Proposal Glycome project: concept, strategy and preliminary application to Caenorhabditis elegans (A proposal to base the glycome project on Caenorhabditis Elegans a microscopic worm, whose entire genome is already sequenced) "Glycobiology Goes to the Ball" by ...

Homeobox

... , fungi and plants . Genes that have a homeobox are called homeobox genes and form the homeobox gene family . A homeobox is about 180 base pairs long; it encodes a protein domain (the homeodomain ) which can bind DNA. Homeobox genes encode transcription factors which typically ...

Human

... , the third orangutans . Together with gorillas , these four make up the category of great apes . Biologists have compared a sequence of DNA base pairs between humans and chimpanzees, and estimated an overall genetic difference of less than 1 per cent. It has been estimated that the human ...

Life

... entropy to negentropy , using flow of energy . Descent with modification: a "useful" characteristic A useful characteristic upon which to base a definition of life is that of descent with modification: the ability of a life form to produce offspring that are like its parent or parents, but ...

Molecular evolution

... determine the sequence of a defined area of a particular chromosome . Typical molecular systematic analyses require the sequencing of around 1000 base pairs . The neutral theory Main article: Neutral theory of molecular evolution One of the questions concerning molecular evolution is ...

Neuron

... diameter and not much larger than than the cell nucleus it contains. The axon of a human motoneuron can be over a metre long, reaching from the base of the spine to the toes. Connectivity Neurons communicate with one another and to other cells through synapses , where the axon tip of one ...

Nucleosome

... up the central core particle of the nucleosome. The DNA is wrapped around this protein complex in two turns, with each turn consisting of about 80 base pairs . Together with the DNA linking two nucleosomes, there are about 200 bps of DNA per nucleosome. Nucleosomes are involved in processes ...

Phage

... outer protein hull and the enclosed genetic material (which consists of double-stranded DNA in 95% of the phages known) of 5 to 650 kbp (kilo base pairs ) with a length of 24 to 200 nm . The vast majority of phages (95%) have a tail to let them inject their genetic material into the host. ...

Alga

... algae, called seaweeds , grow mostly in shallow water and provide distinctive habitats. Microscopic forms, called phytoplankton , provide the food base for marine food chains . Phytoplankton can be present in high densities, called algal blooms , which might be visible as a discoloration of the ...

Plasmid

... , sometimes in eukaryotic organisms (e.g., the 2-micrometre-ring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). Their size varies from 1 to over 400 kilo base pairs (kbp). There are from one copy, for large plasmids, to hundreds of copies of the same plasmid present in a single cell . Contents ...

Purine

... pyrimidine A U G C Adenine Guanine These hydrogen bonding modes are for classical Watson-Crick base pairing . Other hydrogen bonding modes are seen in both DNA and RNA . Of significance, the additional 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety in ...

Pyrimidine

... A U G C Thymine Uracil Cytosine These hydrogen bonding modes are for classical Watson-Crick base pairing . Other hydrogen bonding modes are available in both DNA and RNA , although the additional 2'-hydroxyl group of RNA expands the ...
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