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acid in Biological Definition

Coenzyme A

... CoASH , or HSCoA ) is adapted from pantothenic acid and adenosine triphosphate and used in metabolism in areas such as fatty acid oxidization and the citric acid cycle . Its main function is to carry acyl ...

Alcohol

... , oil , or coal feedstocks, for example via acid catalysed hydration of alkenes . For more ... (such as an aldehyde , ketone or carboxylic acid ), then it is necessary to use the prefix ... in the presence of strong acids such as sulfuric acid . For example, with methanol: Alcohols ...

Alpha helix

... helical structure, about 5 wide. Each amino acid results in a 100 turn in the helix, and ... almost no free space within the helix. All amino acid side-chains are arranged at the outside of the helix. The N-H group of amino acid (n) can establish a hydrogen bond with the C=O ...

Amino acid

... In chemistry , an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups . In biochemistry , this ... are attached to the same carbon . Amino acid residue is what is left of an ...

Beta sheet

... in 1951 . It consists of two or more amino acid sequences within the same protein that are ... can form between the two strands. The amino acid chain is almost fully extended throughout a ... nm) apart. The side chains from the amino acid residues found in a β sheet structure may ...

Bioinformatics

... application of bioinformatics. The amino acid sequence of a protein, the so-called primary ... of this folding just by looking at the amino acid sequence is quite difficult. Several methods for ... of these proteins have completely different amino acid sequences, their protein structures are virtually ...

Biopolymer

... for a protein is to list its constituent amino acid residues as they occur from the amino terminus to the carboxylic acid terminus. The convention for a nucleic acid sequence is to list the nucleotides as they ...

Cellular respiration

... of pyruvate breakdown. A molecule of pyruvate acid travels into a mitochondrion entering the ... are ethanol (drinkable alcohol), lactic acid , and hydrogen . However, more exotic compounds can be produced by fermentation, such as butyric acid and acetone . Although fermentation ...

Citric acid cycle

... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle , the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle ) is ... . In these aerobic organisms , the citric acid cycle is a metabolic pathway that forms part of ...

Genetic code

... RNAs and associated enzymes , into an amino acid chain ( polypeptide ), which will then be folded ... the following tables. Table 1 shows what amino acid each of the 64 codons specifies. Table 2 ... For example, the codon AAU represents the amino acid asparagine (Asp), and cysteine (Cys) is ...

Bioinformatics

... application of bioinformatics. The amino acid sequence of a protein, the so-called primary ... of this folding just by looking at the amino acid sequence is quite difficult. Several methods for ... of these proteins have completely different amino acid sequences, their protein structures are virtually ...

DNA

... DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) is a nucleic acid which is capable of carrying genetic ... acids , A structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic acid ". April 2, 1953. (paper on the structure of ...

Enzyme

... a consequence of this basic structure, the amino acid chain of an enzyme tends to consist of one or ... active site widely dispersed throughout the amino acid chain, with random mutation occurring anywhere. ... , which usually converts the essential amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine does not work, ...

Fermentation

... Fermentation yields lactate , acetic acid , ethanol , or some other simple product. ... of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid , alcoholic, acetic acid , and alkaline fermentations " "Enrichment of ...

Genetic code

... RNAs and associated enzymes , into an amino acid chain ( polypeptide ), which will then be folded ... the following tables. Table 1 shows what amino acid each of the 64 codons specifies. Table 2 ... For example, the codon AAU represents the amino acid asparagine (Asp), and cysteine (Cys) is ...

Hydrolysis

... group , while the other contains a carboxylic acid functional group. The fragment of the parent ... to its component alcohol and carboxylic acid . Hydrolysing peptide link of amino acids ... acids only one of the products, the carboxylic acid product, has a hydroxide group derived from the ...

Insulin

... insulin differs from human insulin in two amino acid residues, and pork insulin in one residue. Fish ... glucose levels in diabetes. increased fatty acid synthesis – insulin forces fat cells to ... to make fats (ie, triglycerides) from fatty acid esters; lack of insulin causes the reverse ...

Isozyme

... selection . (2) Alternatively, if the amino acid residue that is changed is in a relatively ... may differ in other ways. In particular, amino acid substitutions that change the electric charge of the enzyme (such as replacing aspartic acid with ...

Citric acid cycle

... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle , the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle ) is ... . In these aerobic organisms , the citric acid cycle is a metabolic pathway that forms part of ...

Lipase

... mechanism involving a serine nucleophile, an acid residue (usually aspartic acid), and a histidine. ... lysosomal lipase, also referred to as lysosomal acid lipase (LAL or LIPA) or acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase [3] . Below is a ...

Louis Pasteur

... a problem concerning the nature of tartaric acid ( 1849 ). A solution of this compound derived ... passing through it. The mystery was that tartaric acid derived by chemical synthesis had no such ... Pasteur correctly deduced that the tartaric acid molecule was asymmetric and could exist in two ...

Metabolism

... pathways Carbohydrate metabolism Fatty acid metabolism Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle) Catabolism Catabolic pathways ...

Neural tube

... Research has shown that women with folic acid deficiences also have a higher chance of having ... tube defect, but this is only one factor. Folic acid is not a cure, as some women taking folic acid supplements have been known to have children with ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... different codons can code for one amino acid , it is often difficult to deduce which codon is ... primer sequence corresponding to the amino acid isoleucine might be "ATH", where A stands for ... the amount of a gene's expression . Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is the molecule into which DNA is ...

Primer

... (disambiguation) . A primer is a nucleic acid strand (or related molecule) that serves as a ... different codons can code for one amino acid , it is often difficult to deduce which codon is ... primer sequence corresponding to the amino acid isoleucine might be "ATH", where A stands for ...

Prion

... of a protein (without changing its amino acid sequence) can alter its biological properties. ... the fiber to grow. Small differences in the amino acid sequence of prion-forming regions lead to ... protein molecules that are identical in amino acid sequence to the prion protein can be recruited ...

Protein biosynthesis

... the mRNA. tRNA also has a single unit of amino acid attached to it. As the ribosome travels down ... site. The first tRNA is released, but the amino acid that is attached to the first tRNA is now moved ... continues on, and a long chain of amino acid (protein), is formed. When the entire unit ...

Protein

... Protein structure Proteins are amino acid chains that fold into unique 3-dimensional ... structure: Primary structure : the amino acid sequence Secondary structure : highly ... native conformation. The two ends of the amino acid chain are referred to as the carboxy terminus ...

Purine

... amino acids glycine , glutamine , and aspartic acid , as well as formate ions transferred from the ... , including xanthine oxidase , into uric acid . High levels of uric acid can predispose to gout when ...

RNA

... Ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound ... one part of a single RNA molecule is the nucleic acid complement of another part of the same molecule ...

Virus

... these particles carry a small amount of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA ) surrounded by some form ... anatomy Virus particles comprise a nucleic acid genome , that may be either DNA or RNA , ... in length. This complex of protein and nucleic acid is called the nucleocapsid, and, in the case of ...

Vitamin

... by Lucy Wills in 1933 . Also known as Folic acid or Vitamin M Niacin Water ... PP (for prevents pellagra ). Pantothenic acid Water Discovered by Roger Williams in 1933 ... in the human body. Vitamin C ( Ascorbic acid ) Water Identified by James Lind in 1747 . ...

Amine

... as bases and are reasonably strong (see table for examples of conjugate acid K a values). The nitrogen atom has a lone electron pair available which ... reactions can also be some other leaving group forming a corresponding acid or anion. Because inversion of the three substituent groups bonded to ...

Antibiotic

... B Colistin Quinolones ( fluoroquinolones ) Nalidixic acid Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) Ofloxacin Norfloxacin (Norflox) ... antibiotics: Chloramphenicol Clindamycin Fusidic acid Trimethoprim Another such classification is by their ...

Blood

... and to remove waste products (such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid ). Blood also enables cells ( leukocytes , abnormal tumor cells) and ... the kidney to be excreted in urine . A buffer solution of carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) is present in the human blood ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... Crassulacean acid metabolism ( CAM ) is a carbon fixation pathway in some photosynthetic ... as cacti. CAM plants uptake CO2 at night and change it into crassulacean acid that can be broken down during the day for sugars. These plants can close ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... Crassulacean acid metabolism ( CAM ) is a carbon fixation pathway in some photosynthetic ... as cacti. CAM plants uptake CO2 at night and change it into crassulacean acid that can be broken down during the day for sugars. These plants can close ...

Cancer

... controlled trials. Consumption of red meat and inadequate folic acid intake have also been associated with increased risk of colon cancer . A ... developing breast cancer in high-risk women by about 50%. Cis-retinoic acid also has been shown to reduce risk of second primary tumors among ...

Diabetes mellitus

... degraded to release amino acids for gluconeogenesis. The rise of fatty acid levels is accompanied by a rise of ketones ( acetone , acetoacetate ... 2004. There have also been proposed vaccines for type I using glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), but these are currently not being tested by the ...

Digestion

... the stomach . In the stomach, food is churned and thoroughly mixed with acid and other digestive enzymes with digestive fluid to further decompose ... stimulates the gastric glands to secrete pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid . Secretion of gastrin is stimulated by food arriving in stomach. The ...
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