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Water in Biological Definition

Alcohol

... It can therefore be regarded as a derivative of water , with an alkyl group replacing one of the ... methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water because the hydroxyl group wins out over the ... they are generally slightly weaker acids than water , but they are still able to react with strong ...

Bacterium

... all organisms. They are ubiquitous in soil , water , and as symbionts of other organisms. Many ... atmosphere. They apparently pioneered the use of water as (lithotrophic) electron source and were the first to use the photosynthetic water splitting apparatus. Other photosynthetic ...

Diabetes mellitus

... is excreted by the kidneys but this requires water to carry it and causes increased fluid loss, ... The lost blood volume will be replaced from water held inside body cells, causing dehydration . ... levels (usually considered to be above 300 mg/dl) water will be osmotically driven out of cells into the ...

Dialysis

... the osmotic gradient, and therefore the amount of water that diffuses out of the bloodstream. Common ... regulation. Higher concentrations lead to greater water removal. Electrolytes are also present in the ... in osmolarity between the two liquids, water traverses the membrane in order to dilute the ...

Diffusion

... is readily observed when a drop of colored water is added to clear water, or when smoke from a ... through its wall. When spaghetti is cooked, water molecules diffuse into the spaghetti strings, ... a room by diffusion. A sugar cube in a glass of water that is not stirred will dissolve slowly and the ...

Escherichia coli

... is released as flatulence ). In the fields of water purification and sewage treatment , E. coli ... it is possible to tell whether fecal material in water came from humans or from birds, for example. New ... Coliform Bacteria in Canadian Pulp and Paper Mill water Systems - a Cause for Concern? - by Dr. F. ...

Ethyl alcohol

... purer than 96%. Therefore, 95% ethanol in water is a fairly common solvent. To produce absolute ... Benzene forms a tertiary azeotrope with water and ethanol to remove the last of the water, and ... most of the benzene. The resulting ethanol is water free, for processes that require it. However, ...

Bacterium

... all organisms. They are ubiquitous in soil , water , and as symbionts of other organisms. Many ... atmosphere. They apparently pioneered the use of water as (lithotrophic) electron source and were the first to use the photosynthetic water splitting apparatus. Other photosynthetic ...

Excretion

... should a person be in a situation of insufficient water and in danger of overheating due to lack of ... it (or salty ocean water), as it requires more water from the body to excrete the salt than is ... with the eyes. Such birds can drink sea water without harm. In insects , a system involving ...

Hydrolysis

... into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water . This is distinct from a hydration reaction , in which water molecules are added to a substance, but no ... gains a hydrogen ion from the additional water molecule. The fragment that was originally an ...

Kidney

... ) from the blood and excrete them, along with water , as urine . The medical field that studies the ... in each normal adult kidney. Nephrons regulate water and soluble matter (especially electrolytes ) in ... ions are thus returned to the body. 97.9% of the water in the filtrate enters the convoluted tubules and ...

Leaf

... take place. Leaves can store food and water , and are modified in some plants for other ... serves several functions: protection against water loss, regulation of gas exchange, secretion of ... outer side with a waxy cuticle that prevents water loss. The cuticle may be thinner on the lower ...

Lipid

... in a polar environment, the polar molecules (i.e. water in an aqueous solution) become more ordered ... Therefore, in an aqueous environment, the polar water molecules form an ordered "clathrate" cage around ... similar to the spontaneous separation of oil and water into two separate phases when one puts them ...

Marine biology

... everything from the tiny layers of surface water in which organisms and abiotic items may be ... solid objects are rare and the surface of the water is the only visible boundary. A large (exactly ... physical effects of continual immersion in sea water , and the ocean in general, as well as for the ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... as well as detecting the amount of bound water in geological structures. It is primarily used to ... property of T2 weighting. On a T2 weighted scan, water and fluid-containing tissues are bright (most ... inversion recovery) sequence, in which free water now is dark, but edematous tissues remain bright. ...

Nephron

... The basic function of the nephron is to regulate water and soluble substances (especially ions ) in ... liquid, known as glomerular filtrate , contains water , glucose , salt , amino acids , and urea . Proximal tubule The valuable molecules, water , glucose , salt , and amino acids are ...

Osmosis

... because it provides the primary means by which water is transported into and out of cells . ... protein. When the cells are placed in solution, water rushes in to the area of high solute ... experiment. This is because the osmotic entry of water is opposed and eventually equalled by the ...

Osmoregulation

... to maintain the homeostasis of the body's water content, that is it keeps the body from becoming ... Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by ... the osmotic pressure of a solution the more water wants to go into the solution. The pressure that ...

Redox

... complex electron transfer processes, to yield water and carbon dioxide. The term redox comes from ... O 3 . Burning of hydrocarbons to produce water , carbon dioxide , some partially oxidized ... , stepwise oxidation of a hydrocarbon produces water and, successively, an alcohol , an aldehyde or ...

Passive transport

... Filtration Filtration is movement of water and solute molecules across the cell membrane due ... Osmosis Osmosis is basically diffusion of water molecules. Most cell membranes are permeable to water, and since the diffusion of water plays such an important role in the biological ...

Lipid bilayer

... Color scheme: PO4 = green, N(CH3)3 = violet, water = blue, terminal CH3 = yellow, O = red, glycol C ... certain kinds of lipids alone in a test tube of water will self-organize to form a "bilayer". The ... ions and other hydrophilic molecules. water itself is an exception to this rule, and crosses ...

Plasmolysis

... of cells within plants due to the loss of water through osmosis . It is the cell membrane ... from its cell wall. This phenomenon occurs when water is drawn out of the cell and into the extracellular (outside cell) fluid. The movement of water occurs across the membrane moving from an area of ...

Redox

... complex electron transfer processes, to yield water and carbon dioxide. The term redox comes from ... O 3 . Burning of hydrocarbons to produce water , carbon dioxide , some partially oxidized ... , stepwise oxidation of a hydrocarbon produces water and, successively, an alcohol , an aldehyde or ...

Stoma

... exits through these same openings. Also, water vapor is released into the atmosphere through ... stomata on the upper epidermis can then prevent water loss. Monocotyledons are different. For ... epidermis as it can absorb gases directly from water through cuticle . If it is submerged leaf, no ...

Thermoregulation

... which is stabilized by the unique properties of water within the bodies of organisms including animals; ... evaporation - evaporative cooling occurs when water (often from perspiration) leaves the skin surface ... the ability to remain functional even when the water temperature is below freezing and some even use ...

Turgor

... that is permeable to a solvent such as water but not to solutes. A biological cell , for ... other substances. In a hypotonic environment, water flows across the plasma membrane into the cell (since the concentration of water is lower inside the cell than outside), causing ...

Vacuole

... vacuoles in the same cell), but is principally water . water tends to move along concentration gradients into ... A contractile vacuole is used to pump excess water out of the cell to reduce osmotic pressure and ...

Xylem

... plants , the xylem is the tissue that carries water up the root and stem. In trees , it constitutes ... walls of vessel elements are perforated, enabling water to flow through vessels. Xylem cells are also ... Contents The xylem sap consists mainly of water and inorganic ions, such as nitrate , although ...

Anaerobic

... reactions. One example is that wood which is totally immersed in water does not rot - rotting being a process requiring water and oxygen - see Seahenge . See also: Anaerobic exercise ...

Chromatography

... The paper is then dipped in to a suitable solvent (such as ethanol or water ) and placed in a sealed container. As the solvent rises through the paper ... broader peaks). Solvents used include any miscible combination of water or various organic liquids (the most common are methanol or ...

Ebola

... for help. He taught them how to sterilize their needles and purify water . He also told the nurses to instruct patients' families not to bury their ... to be effective. Although some have noted that Ebola can travel through water droplets in the air (Preston 260), it is currently not possible for Ebola ...

Endodermis

... walls which are made of suberin mainly, a waxy substance which prevents water from flowing back into the soil. water is thus forced toward the center of the root, into the xylem , where it ...

Fungus

... , which assist their roots in absorption of nutrients and water . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Human ... (club fungi). Most mushrooms are classified in the Basidiomycota. The water moulds , of which potato blight is the best known example, show a hyphal ...

Homeostasis

... in mammals are as follows: The regulation of the amounts of water and minerals in the body. This is known as osmoregulation. This happens in ... dioxide . The kidneys remove urea , and adjust the concentrations of water and a wide variety of ions . Most of these organs are controlled ...

Human

... leads to hunger and eventually starvation , while failure to obtain water leads to dehydration and thirst . Both starvation and dehydration cause ... goods. Permanent human settlements are dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources such as fertile ...

Light-dependent reaction

... pigments is used to drive a transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water (or some other donor molecule) to an acceptor called NADP + , reducing ... by adding a pair of electrons and a single proton (hydrogen nucleus). The water or some other donor molecule is split in the process; it is the light ...

Long-term potentiation

... for spatial learning.) Both groups were then subjected to the Morris water maze , in which rats were placed into a pool of murky water and tested on how quickly they could locate a platform hidden beneath the ...

Peptide bond

... with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H 2 O). This is a dehydration synthesis reaction, and usually occurs ... bonds in proteins are metastable , meaning that in the presence of water they will break spontaneously, releasing about 10 kJ / mol of free ...

Phospholipid

... Due to its polar nature, the head of a phospholipid is attracted to water (it is hydrophilic ). The nonpolar head is not attracted to water and is said to be hydrophobic . When placed in water, phospholipids form ...

Phloem

... by its (much smaller but quite living) companion cell. While movement of water and minerals through the xylem is driven by negative pressures (tension) ... element by actively transporting solute molecules into it. This causes water to move into the sieve-tube element by osmosis , creating pressure that ...
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