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Viral in Biological Definition

Antibiotic

... the host. Antibiotics are not effective in viral , fungal and other nonbacterial infections, and ... in particular the use of antibacterials for viral infections like the common cold, and failure to ... no efficacy, such as the common cold or other viral complaints, and when they are used widely as ...

Ebola

... filamentous structure of a filovirus . The viral filaments can appear in images in various shapes ... of a filament associated with an individual viral particle is extremely variable, with Ebola ... is derived from the host cell membrane. Each viral particle contains one molecule of ...

Foot and mouth disease

... disease , is a highly contagious but non-fatal viral disease of cattle and pigs . It can also ... rarely. The cause of FMD was first shown to be viral in 1897 by Friedrich Loeffler . He passed the ... disease is caused by an Aphthovirus of the viral family Picornaviridae . The members of this ...

Lytic cycle

... The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction , the other being the lysogenic ... is typically thought of as the main method of viral replication, since it results in the destruction ... DNA or RNA , into the cell. Growth The viral nucleic acid takes over and uses the host cells ...

Virology

... their properties. Properties include: viral replication viral pathogenesis viral immunology ...

Virus

... , lipids , and glycoproteins . Importantly viral genomes code not only for the proteins needed ... as tools for genetic engineering 4 viral size, structure and, anatomy 5 viral replication 5.1 Steps associated ...

Antigenic shift

... The term antigenic shift is specific to the influenza literature. In other viral systems, the same process is called reassortment or viral shift . ...

Apoptosis

... malignant mutation) or with foreign antigen produced as a consequence of a viral infection. After becoming activated, they migrate out of the lymph nodes ... suppression, but is also important in eliciting an apoptotic response to viral infection and consequent damage to the cell's reproductive cycle. ...

Hepatitis B

... therapy offers any advantages. In general, each works by reducing the viral load by several orders of magnitude thus helping a body's immune system ... for developing complications of persistent infection, and development of viral resistance with treatment. Chronic carriers should be strongly ...

Outbreak

... cases or sporadic cases occurred in the past. The study of pathogenic viral outbreaks is a branch of epidemiology and usually refers to virus ... that make people, animals, or plants sick. As with bacterial outbreaks, viral outbreaks are classified as sporadic (occasional occurrence), endemic ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... using the appropriate primers and then sequenced to detect mutations. viral diseases , too, can be detected using PCR through amplification of the viral DNA. This analysis is possible right after infection, which can be from ...

Restriction enzyme

... therefore are believed to be a mechanism evolved by bacteria to resist viral attack and to help in the removal of viral sequences. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Sites ...

Vaccine

... strain of the organism. The term derives from vaccinia , the infectious viral agent of cowpox , which, when administered to humans, provided them ... , triggering immune system recognition) into human or animal cells, of viral or bacterial DNA . These cells then develop immunity against an ...

Virus evolution

... months. Virus evolution is an important aspect of the epidemiology of viral diseases such as influenza , HIV , hepatitis , and many others. It also ... to study virus evolution is the quasispecies model . See also viral classification RNA virus DNA virus Further reading E. ...

Antibody

... they can cause agglutination and precipitation of antibody-antigen products prime for phagocytosis by macrophages and other cells, block viral receptors and stimulate other immune responses such as the complement pathway . Antibodies that recognize viruses can block these directly by ...

Antigen

... antigens Endogenous antigens are antigens that have been generated within the cell, as a result of normal cell metabolism , or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection . The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex with class I histocompatibility ...

Bacterium

... bacterial cell to another in solution, this can include dead bacteria), transduction (the transfer of viral, bacterial, or both bacterial and viral DNA from one cell to another via bacteriophage) and; bacterial conjugation (the transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another via a special ...

Full blood count

... count with differential will also include: Neutrophil granulocytes - May indicate bacterial infection. Lymphocytes - Higher with some viral infections such as glandular fever . Also raised in lymphocytic leukaemia CLL . Monocytes - May be raised in bacterial infection Eosinophil ...

Brain

... can be treated by psychiatric therapy , by drugs , or by a combination of treatments. Some diseases that affect the brain are caused by germs. viral or bacterial infection of the meninges, the membrane that covers the brain, can lead to meningitis . Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a ...

Bacterium

... bacterial cell to another in solution, this can include dead bacteria), transduction (the transfer of viral, bacterial, or both bacterial and viral DNA from one cell to another via bacteriophage) and; bacterial conjugation (the transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another via a special ...

Evolutionary biology

... of microbial genomics , and the quick generation time of some microbes to answer evolutionary questions. Similar features have led to progress in viral evolution, particularly for bacteriophage . Notable evolutionary biologists Notable contributors to evolutionary biology include: ...

Flaviviridae

... virus , others include West Nile virus ) Genus Hepacivirus (type species Hepatitis C virus ) Genus Pestivirus (type species Bovine viral diarrhea virus , others include classical swine fever or hog cholera) The genome of the Flaviviridae viruses is a monopartite, linear, ...

Gene therapy

... new genes into chromosomes, so that cells that divide will pass the genes to their progeny . Scientists have removed certain crucial genes from the viral genome , so that they cannot damage the host. RPR Gencell (a French pharmaceutical company) conducted experiments injecting retroviruses into lung ...

Immune system

... be damaged by the first enzyme because of the presence of the second enzyme. However, when a bacteriophage attempts to infect this bacterium, the viral DNA has not been protected, and gets degraded by the first enzyme. While study of the bacterial immune system provides useful insights into ...

Lysis

... reduction of symptoms of a disease the dissolving of cells known more specifically as cytolysis osmotic lysis chemical lysis viral lysis a dialogue of Plato about friendship ( philia ), see Lysis (Plato) ...

Molecular biology

... transfection reagents such as Fugene. DNA can also be introduced into cells using viruses as a carrier. In such cases, the technique is called viral transduction, and the cells are said to be transduced. In either case, DNA coding for a protein of interest is now inside a cell, and the protein ...

Proprioception

... Juggling trains reaction time and spatial location. Oliver Sacks once reported the case of a young woman who lost her proprioception due to a viral infection of her spinal cord . At first she was not able to move properly at all. Later she relearned by using her sight (watching her feet) and ...

Proteome

... used to refer to the collection of proteins in certain sub-cellular biological systems. For example, all of the proteins in a virus can be called a viral proteome. The proteome is larger than the genome , expecially in eukaryotes , in the sense there are more proteins than genes . This is due to ...

Proteolysis

... residues after translation . Removal of the signal sequence of peptides after their transport through a membrane Separation of viral proteins that were translated from a monocistronic mRNA Digestion of proteins from foods as a source of amino acids Conversion of ...

RNA virus

... very slowly. The gene in question has a complex three-dimensional structure which is hypothesized to provide a chemical function necessary for viral propagation. (See ribozyme .) If so, most mutations would render it unfit for that purpose and would not propagate. Some RNA viruses: ...

Tobacco mosaic virus

... correct after her death. Tobacco mosaic virus has a rod-like appearance. Its capsid is made from a single protein that assembles itself around the viral RNA in a helical structure (16.3 proteins per helix turn). The virions have a diameter ~18nm and an inner hole ~2nm. The protein coat consists of 158 ...

Tobacco mosaic virus

... correct after her death. Tobacco mosaic virus has a rod-like appearance. Its capsid is made from a single protein that assembles itself around the viral RNA in a helical structure (16.3 proteins per helix turn). The virions have a diameter ~18nm and an inner hole ~2nm. The protein coat consists of 158 ...

Yellow fever

... Yellow fever (also called black vomit or sometimes The American Plague ) is an acute viral disease. It is still an important cause of hemorrhage illness in several African and South American countries despite existence of an ...
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