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Upper in Biological Definition

Leaf

... tissues: An epidermis that covers the upper and lower surfaces An interior chlorenchyma ... Most leraves show dorsoventral anatomy: the upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) surfaces have ... may be thinner on the lower epidermis than on the upper epidermis; and is thicker on leaves from dry ...

Lichen

... four layers of interlaced filaments (fungus). The upper layer is formed by densely agglutinated fungal ... the surface called cephalopodia. Beneath the upper cortex is an algal layer composed of algal cells ... the medulla the bottom surface resembles the upper surface and is called the lower cortex , ...

Stoma

... have more stomata on the lower epidermis than the upper epidermis. As these leaves are held horizontally, upper epidermis is directly illuminated. Less number of stomata on the upper epidermis can then prevent water loss. ...

Dialysis

... valve in the catheter is also closed. The clamp is then removed from the upper tubing, permitting dialysis fluid to drain out. The clamp to the drain bag is briefly opened and some fluid is drained directly from the upper bag into the lower bag. This clears the line of air and other impurities. ...

Lung

... ). The evolutionary origin of both are thought to be outpocketings of the upper intestines. This is reflected by the fact that the lungs of a fetus also develop from an outpocketing of the upper intestines (see ontogeny and phylogeny ). The article on swim bladders ...

Molecular evolution

... the effective population size . From this it is possible to determine an upper limit to the number of possible alleles in a population, n as the ... for a given strength of selection ( s ), that there would be an upper limit to the number of fitter alleles (polymorphisms) that a population ...

Bacterium

... Baltimore, Maryland: Williams and Wilkins, 1994. Stanier, R.Y., J. L. Ingraham, M. L. Wheelis, and P. R. Painter. General Microbiology . 5th ed. upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1986. Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR. Impact of Culture-Independent Studies on the Emerging ...

Bacterium

... Baltimore, Maryland: Williams and Wilkins, 1994. Stanier, R.Y., J. L. Ingraham, M. L. Wheelis, and P. R. Painter. General Microbiology . 5th ed. upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1986. Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR. Impact of Culture-Independent Studies on the Emerging ...

Human

... of Hominoidea , with all of the apes: chimpanzees , gorillas , orangutans , and gibbons . Humans have an erect body carriage that frees the upper limbs for manipulating objects, and a highly developed brain and consequent capacity for abstract reasoning , speech , language , and ...

Kidney

... at the vertebral level T12 to L3, and the right kidney usually lies slightly lower than the left in order to accommodate the liver . The upper parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs , and each whole kidney is surrounded by two layers of fat (the ...

Liver

... reddish-brown "wedge-shaped" organ. It is the largest organ in the abdomen and sits immediately under the diaphragm on the right side of the upper abdomen. The liver lies anterior to the gallbladder and superior to the right kidney . The liver is supplied by two major blood vessels: the ...
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