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Type in Biological Definition

Allele

... . A gene containing the codominant pure blood type alleles "AA" and "BB" would result in a blood type of "AB". A wild type allele is an allele which is considered to be ...

Cancer

... cell. Hence, cancers can be classified by the type of cell in which it originates and by the ... pathologist . The tissue diagnosis indicates the type of cell that is proliferating, its severity ... therapy, or irradiation) is the use of a certain type of energy (called ionizing radiation ) to kill ...

Cartilage

... Cartilage is type of dense connective tissue . Cartilage is ... and elastic fibers. In hyaline cartilage, type II collagen make up 40% of its dry weight and are ... is mainly composed of proteoglycans , a special type of glycosaminoglycans . The most ...

Collagen

... occurs in different forms known as types: type I collagen - This is the most abundant collagen ... in tendons and the organic part of bone . type II collagen - Articular cartilage type III collagen - This is the collagen of ...

Diabetes mellitus

... production of insulin (diabetes mellitus type 1, the first recognized form), or decreased ... of body tissues to insulin (diabetes mellitus type 2, the more common form). The former requires ... types 2.1 The role of insulin 2.2 type 1 diabetes mellitus ...

Flagellum

... of Spirochete body form) have a specialized type of flagellum called axial filament that is ... share sequence similarity to components of the type III secretion systems , but the components of ... and morphological similarity with components of type IV pili , which are assembled through the action ...

Intermediate filament

... 1.1 Lamin IFs 1.2 Keratin IFs 1.3 type III IFs 1.4 Neurofilaments 1.5 Nestin ... then associate to make a keratin filament. type III IFs Desmin IFs are structural components ... (NF-H) Nestin Intermediate filament type VI. It is found in neural stem cells . Cell ...

Insulin

... some forms of diabetes mellitus . Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus depend on exogenous insulin ... deficiency of the hormone; patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have either relatively low ... from entering those cells (eg, in untreated type 1 diabetes). However, more commonly there is a ...

Leaf

... may be classified in many different ways, and the type is usually characteristic of a species, although some species produce more than one type of leaf. The terminology associated with ... These, in turn, form a complicated network. This type of venation is typical for dicotyledons . ...

Memory

... by duration 2 Classification by information type 3 Classification by temporal direction ... of time which ranges from days to years; this type of memory is called long-term memory . It may ... memory. Classification by information type Long-term memory, the largest part of any ...

Microscope

... a microscope to examine. The most common type of microscope—and the first to be ... (see metallography ) and minerals , another type of microscope is used, where the light is ... of field here are important qualities for this type of microscope. Both qualities are inversely ...

Muscle

... "striated", they contain sarcomeres ; the third type is "smooth": Striated muscles contain ... bursts (at the cost of quicker fatiguability). type II fibers are used when a task requires more than 25% of your strength. type II fibers are further divided into two ...

Operator

... kind of function ; if it comes with a specified type of operand as function domain , it is no more ... itself is a function, but has an attached type indicating the correct operand, and the kind of ... This extra data can be defined formally, using type theory ; but in everyday usage saying operator ...

Photosystem

... (700 and 680 nanometers , respectively), and the type of terminal electron acceptor. type I photosystems use ferredoxin like iron-sulfur ... proteins as terminal electron acceptors, while type II photosystems ultimately shuffle electrons to a ...

Photosystem

... (700 and 680 nanometers , respectively), and the type of terminal electron acceptor. type I photosystems use ferredoxin like iron-sulfur ... proteins as terminal electron acceptors, while type II photosystems ultimately shuffle electrons to a ...

Proteomics

... entirety of proteins found in a particular cell type under a particular type of stimulation, are referred to as the proteome of the organism or cell type respectively. With completion of a rough draft ...

Restriction enzyme

... restriction enzyme; because cuts made by a given type of enzyme always produce identical ends with ... biochemically into three types, designated type I, type II ...

Retrovirus

... are included here: Genus Alpharetrovirus ; type species: Avian leucosis virus Genus Betaretrovirus ; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus Genus Gammaretrovirus ; type species: Murine leukeamia virus ; others ...

Blood type

... A blood type is a description an individual's characteristics ... antigens and antibodies : Individuals with type A blood have red blood cells with antigen A on ... or from an O-negative person. Individuals with type B blood have the opposite arrangement, antigen ...

Spermatogenesis

... spermatogonia , undergoing mitosis becoming a type A spermatogonium or a type B spermatogonium. Type B spermatogonia become ... another meiotic division to become spermatids . type A spermatogonia stay as spermatogonia, and do not ...

Stem cell

... of these cells could produce just one particular type of cell—this is called differentiation ... mice which they say are pluripotent. Turning one type of stem cell into another is called ... into spinal motor neuron cells, the cell type that, in the human body, transmits messages ...

T cell

... with self and foreign antigens in a complex with type I and type II MHC molecules by type II ...

Virus classification

... can infect, by mode of transmission, or by the type of disease they cause. The most useful classification is probably by the type of nucleic acid the virus contains and its mode ... 1 Overview 2 Classification by genome type 2.1 DNA viruses 2.1.1 Group I - ...

Active transport

... molecules across a membrane. Most of the enzymes that perform this type of transport are transmembrane ATPases . A primary ATPase universal to ... steeply or "spikes" and enables rapid recovery. This shows that a single type of ion can be transported by several enzymes, which need not be active all ...

Antibody

... chain: λ and κ. In humans they are similar, but only one type is present in each antibody. Each light chain has two successive domains: ... activate complement and opsonises only weakly. Its heavy chains are of the type α. It exists in two forms, IgA1 (90%) and IgA2 (10%) that differ in ...

Apoptosis

... results of their work in the role played by a defective death signal in a type of lung cancer cells called NCI-H460 (human non-small cell lung cancer ... Science Online in December, 2001. Albert described how dendritic Cells, a type of antigen-presenting cells, phagocytose (that is, engulf) apoptotic tumor ...

Biomechanics

... allows skeletal muscle to develop a wide variety of forces. This muscle type can be voluntary controlled. Hill's Model is the most popular model used ... of the digestive tract are largely composed of smooth muscle. This muscle type is involuntary and is controlled by the enteric nervous system. ...

Blood

... blood. A person receiving a blood transfusion must have a blood type compatible with that of the donor. Blood is an important vector of ... cause severe complications, crossmatching is done to ascertain the correct type is transfused. Other blood products administered intravenously are ...

Full blood count

... that count the number of cells going through it, and can identify the type of cell. The two main sensors used are light detectors, and electrical ... number of white blood cells , an estimate of the absolute number of each type of white cell can be obtained. Manual counting has the advantage in that ...

Cell nucleus

... generally contain genes which are not expressed by the cell (this type of heterochromatin is known as facultative heterochromatin) or are regions which make up the telomeres and centromeres of the chromosomes (this type of heterochromatin is known as constitutive heterochromatin). In ...

Dialysis

... person is sleeping. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) uses the same type of machine as CCPD, but is usually done in the hospital because treatment ... plumbing to push saline through the filter, and carefully checked with a type of litmus test . The pump does not directly contact the blood or fluid ...

Hepadnaviridae

... There are two genera included here: Genus Orthohepadnavirus ; type species: Hepatitis B virus Genus Avihepadnavirus ; type species: Duck hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviruses have very small ...

Hermaphrodite

... Examples: Earthworms. Hamlets (Family Haemulidae) are a type of fish that are curious for many reasons, including that they seem to be ... matings, usually over several nights. Gonadal dysgenesis , a type of intersexuality formerly known as "True Hermaphroditism", occurs in ...

Keratin

... or cytokeratins and the hard hair keratins . These can be divided into type I (acidic) and type II (basic to neutral) subfamilies. Keratin is also what fungi that ...

Kwashiorkor

... factor. The condition is likely to be due to deficiency of one of several type I nutrients (e.g iron , folic acid , iodine , selenium , vitamin C ), ... E and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, if a child with reduced type I nutrients or anti-oxidants is exposed to stress (e.g. an infection or ...

Lipase

... ester hydrolase [3] . Below is a computer generated image of a type of pancreatic lipase (PLRP2) from the guinea pig, it is a 3-D model from ... and M. Hallek. 2002. The VP1 capsid protein of adeno-associated virus type 2 is carrying a phospholipase A2 domain required for virus infectivity. J ...

Molecular biology

... one or more functional components with respect to the so-called " wild type " or normal phenotype . Genetic interactions such as epistasis can ... apparatus; and proteins , the major structural and enzymatic type of molecule in cells . Expression cloning One of the most ...

Monoclonal antibody

... ) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell , all clones of a single parent cell. Given any ... thus obtaining a number of different colonies, each producing only one type of antibody. The antibodies from the different colonies are then tested ...

Nutrition

... waste must be analyzed. The number of active variables involved in this type of experimentation is very high. This makes scientifically valid ... notion that protein, carbohydrate etc. were each obtained from one type of food (the meat and two veg model) has all but been replaced. ...

Polysaccharide

... no sweet taste. When all the constituent monosaccharides are of the same type they are termed homopolysaccharides ; when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are termed heteropolysaccharides . ...
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