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Translation in Biological Definition

BLAST

... BLAST. Nucleotide-protein 6-frame translation (blastx) : This program compares the six-frame conceptual translation products of a nucleotide query sequence (both ... be very slow. Nucleotide-nucleotide 6-frame translation (tblastx) : This program is the slowest of the ...

Morphogenesis

... at the posterior end. The Bicoid protein blocks translation of caudal mRNA so Caudal protein is made only ... binds to the hunchback mRNA and blocks its translation in the posterior end of Drosophila embryos. ... by new hunchback gene transcription and translation of the resulting zygotically produced mRNA. ...

Gene

... Normally, RNA is an intermediate product in the translation of a molecular gene into a protein. However, for ... The RNA is often edited before its translation into a protein. Eukaryotic cells splice the ... reading frames during translation. The translation of RNA into a protein also starts with a ...

Morphogenesis

... at the posterior end. The Bicoid protein blocks translation of caudal mRNA so Caudal protein is made only ... binds to the hunchback mRNA and blocks its translation in the posterior end of Drosophila embryos. ... by new hunchback gene transcription and translation of the resulting zygotically produced mRNA. ...

Protein biosynthesis

... term is sometimes used to refer only to protein translation but more often it refers to a multi-step process, beginning with transcription and ending with translation . Protein biosynthesis although very similar, ... 1 Transcription 2 translation 3 Events following biosynthesis 4 ...

RNA

... ) and then translate it into proteins (by translation ). Contents ... rRNA ). Both forms participate in the process of translation , but many others exist. RNA forms the genetic ... specific amino acids to the ribosome during translation , the anticodon of the tRNA paits with the codon ...

Amino acid

... formed by post-translational modification , that is modification after translation ( protein synthesis ). These modifications are often essential for the ... by polymerization of amino acids by peptide bonds in a process called translation . Peptide bond formation 1. Amino acid; 2, zwitterion ...

Archaea

... structure and metabolism . However, their genetic transcription and translation - the two central processes in molecular biology - do not show the ... are extremely similar to those of eukaryotes . For instance, archaean translation uses eukaryotic initiation and elongation factors, and their transcription ...

Genetic code

... as an initiation site: the first AUG in an mRNA 's coding region is where translation into protein begins. 2 This is a start codon for prokaryotes only. ... genes in which mutation of each of these stop codons was first detected. translation starts with a chain initiation codon (start codon). But unlike stop ...

Genetic code

... as an initiation site: the first AUG in an mRNA 's coding region is where translation into protein begins. 2 This is a start codon for prokaryotes only. ... genes in which mutation of each of these stop codons was first detected. translation starts with a chain initiation codon (start codon). But unlike stop ...

Molecular biology

... molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material . The central dogma of molecular biology where ... structure Protein biosynthesis (transcription from DNA to RNA , translation from RNA into protein ) Protein structure and diversity Notable ...

Splicing (genetics)

... genetics , splicing is a modification of genetic information prior to translation . In eukaryotes , a gene often contains altering sequences known as ... exons , 5' cap , leader , trailer and poly-A tail ↓ translation ↓ polypeptide See also : genetics -- cDNA ...

Alpha helix

... in an α helix are arranged in a helical structure, about 5 wide. Each amino acid results in a 100 turn in the helix, and corresponds to a translation of 1.5 along the helical axis. The helix is tightly packed; there is almost no free space within the helix. All amino acid side-chains are arranged ...

Anticodon

... An anticodon is a unit made up of three nucleotides which play an important role in various DNA cycles, including RNA translation . It is, specifically, the group of nucleotides on a strand of tRNA that is complementary to specific codons on a strand of mRNA . See also ...

Cell biology

... of proteins Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in the cytoplasm . This process is also known as protein biosynthesis or simply protein translation . Some proteins, such as those to be incorporated in membranes ( membrane proteins ), are transported into the ER during synthesis and further ...

Cell growth

... protein in cells as they grow larger. Cell size regulation in mammals The protein mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates translation and cell division. Nutrient availability influences mTOR so that when cells are not able to grow to normal size they will not undergo cell ...

DNA

... sequence. The relationship between the nucleotide sequence and the amino-acid sequence of the protein is determined by simple cellular rules of translation , known collectively as the genetic code . The genetic code is made up of three-letter 'words' (termed a codon ) formed from a sequence of three ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... base structure and composition is similar to the plasma membrane , though it is an extension of the nuclear membrane . The ER is the site of the translation and folding of and transport of proteins that are to become part of the cell membrane (e.g., transmembrane receptors and other integral ...

Gregor Mendel

... about a historical evolutionary synthesis of Darwinian natural selection and Mendelian genetics during their lifetimes. Mendel had read a German translation of Darwin's Origin (as evidenced by his notes in the margin of the copy in his monastery), but apparently failed to realize its significance. ...

Kinetic energy

... mass m , whose centre of mass is moving in a straight line with linear velocity v , we can use the Newtonian approximation: E translation is the translational kinetic energy m is mass of the body v is linear velocity of the centre of mass body Thus, for a speed of 10 ...

Konrad Lorenz

... world through the descriptions of it in Tinbergen's 1951 book, The study of instinct , though many of his papers were later published in English translation in the two volumes titled Studies in Animal and Human Behaviour . Lorenz and Tinbergen developed the idea of the "Innate Releasing Mechanism" to ...

Primary structure

... See also sequencing DNA sequence protein sequencing secondary structure tertiary structure quaternary structure translation ...

Protein

... are called conformational changes. The primary structure is held together by covalent peptide bonds , which are made during the process of translation . The secondary structures are held together by hydrogen bonds . The tertiary structure is held together primarily by hydrophobic interactions ...

Proteolysis

... digestion. Proteolysis is used by the cell for several purposes. They include Removal of N-terminal methionine residues after translation . Removal of the signal sequence of peptides after their transport through a membrane Separation of viral proteins that were translated ...

Quaternary structure

... of proteins as protein complexes. See also : primary structure -- secondary structure -- tertiary structure -- structural biology -- translation ...

Reverse genetics

... cellular proteins and without necessarily accelerating mRNA degradation. Morpholinos are effective is systems ranging in complexity from cell-free translation in a test tube to humans. Finally, a more difficult genetics technique is the creation of transgenic organisms that overexpress a gene of ...

Ribosome

... units are not additive - two subunits together can have Svedberg values that do not add up to that of the entire ribosome.] Figure 3 : translation (1) of mRNA by a ribosome (2) into a polypeptide chain (3). The mRNA begins with a start codon ( AUG ) and ends with a stop codon ( UAG ). In ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... base structure and composition is similar to the plasma membrane , though it is an extension of the nuclear membrane . The ER is the site of the translation and folding of and transport of proteins that are to become part of the cell membrane (e.g., transmembrane receptors and other integral ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... base structure and composition is similar to the plasma membrane , though it is an extension of the nuclear membrane . The ER is the site of the translation and folding of and transport of proteins that are to become part of the cell membrane (e.g., transmembrane receptors and other integral ...

Secondary structure

... of secondary structure in analysis of RNA. See also : primary structure — tertiary structure — quaternary structure — translation — structural motif Alignment Both protein and RNA secondary structures can be used to analyze sequences by alignment. These ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... base structure and composition is similar to the plasma membrane , though it is an extension of the nuclear membrane . The ER is the site of the translation and folding of and transport of proteins that are to become part of the cell membrane (e.g., transmembrane receptors and other integral ...

Species

... For Species Determination Offered Quote: ... species of dinosaur that are members of the same genera varied from each other by just 2.2 percent. translation of the percentage into an actual number results in an average of just three skeletal differences out of the total 338 bones in the body. Amazingly, ...

Unsolved problems in biology

... How are the sizes of cells, organs , and bodies controlled? DNA / Genome . Do all organisms link together to a primary source? Is the translation of the genetic code language possible? Given a DNA sequence, what shape will the protein fold into? Given a particular desired shape, what DNA ...

Wobble base pair

... RNA secondary structure . It has comparable thermodynamic stability of the Watson-Crick base pair . Wobble base pairs are critical for the proper translation of the genetic code . The genetic code makes up for disparities in the number of amino acids (20) for codons (64) by using modified base pairs in ...
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