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Transfer in Biological Definition

Bacterium

... in bacteria: transformation (the transfer of naked DNA from one bacterial cell to another ... include dead bacteria), transduction (the transfer of viral, bacterial, or both bacterial and viral ... and; bacterial conjugation (the transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another via a ...

Chemiosmotic hypothesis

... prevailing view was that the energy of electron transfer was stored as a stable high potential ... proton pumping by the complexes of the electron transfer chain grew too great to be ignored. Eventually ... , chemiosmotic potential , electron transfer chain , cytochrome References: ...

Electron transfer chain

... The electron transfer chain (also called the electron transport chain ... associated with the mitochondrial electron transfer chain . Complex I - NADH dehydrogenase , ... ATP . Complex IV is the terminus of the electron transfer chain , where oxygen from the lungs is reduced ...

Enzyme

... and DNA polymerase . Kinases are enzymes that transfer phosphate groups. The International Union of ... /reduction reactions EC 2 Transferases : transfer a functional group (e.g., a methyl or phosphate ... c reductase : participates in the electron transfer chain by reducing cytochrome c and pumping ...

Bacterium

... in bacteria: transformation (the transfer of naked DNA from one bacterial cell to another ... include dead bacteria), transduction (the transfer of viral, bacterial, or both bacterial and viral ... and; bacterial conjugation (the transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another via a ...

RNA

... The best-known examples of RNA genes are transfer RNA ( tRNA ) and ribosomal RNA ( rRNA ). Both ... processes, such as RNA interference . transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small class of RNA molecules ... The most prominent examples of RNA genes are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), both of ...

Bacterial conjugation

... the tra or trb loci seem to open a channel between the bacteria. The transfer of DNA always runs from the F-positive towards the F-negative bacterium. ... DNA that is transferred depends on how long the bacteria hold contact; the transfer of the whole bacterial chromosome would take about 100 minutes. The ...

Flavin

... at once. In the form of FADH 2 , it is one of the cofactors that can transfer electrons to the electron transfer chain . FAD Flavin adenine dinucleotide is a cofactor in the ...

Flavin

... at once. In the form of FADH 2 , it is one of the cofactors that can transfer electrons to the electron transfer chain . FAD Flavin adenine dinucleotide is a cofactor in the ...

Hfr cell

... F+ cell, hfr strains will, upon conjugation with a F- cell, attempt to transfer their entire DNA through the pilus to the F- cell. As fragile a structure as a pilus will, however, likely break, and so the transfer is rarely complete. Thus, the F- cell uses only part of the genomic DNA of ...

Infertility

... is then placed in the woman's uterus as in IVF. Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) in which eggs are removed from the woman, fertilized and then ... woman's fallopian tubes rather than the uterus. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) in which eggs are removed from the woman, and placed in one of the ...

Light-dependent reaction

... by chlorophyll or other photosynthetic pigments is used to drive a transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water (or some other donor molecule) to ... from a molecule of water, splitting it into O 2 and H + . The electrons transfer from the primary acceptor to plastoquinone, then to plastocyanin, ...

Mitochondrion

... is transferred to oxygen (O 2 ) in several steps involving the electron transfer chain. The protein complexes in the inner membrane ( NADH dehydrogenase , cytochrome c reductase , cytochrome c oxidase ) that perform the transfer use the released energy to pump protons (H + ) against a gradient (the ...

Mitochondrion

... is transferred to oxygen (O 2 ) in several steps involving the electron transfer chain. The protein complexes in the inner membrane ( NADH dehydrogenase , cytochrome c reductase , cytochrome c oxidase ) that perform the transfer use the released energy to pump protons (H + ) against a gradient (the ...

Muller's ratchet

... vertically, without recombination caused by sex . Exclusive vertical transfer occurs when the organism is an endosymbiont , e.g. a bacterial ... one can be undone in organisms with sexual reproduction. Horizontal gene transfer in bacteria allows a similar situation. Generally, only obligate ...

Redox

... of sugar in the human body, through a series of very complex electron transfer processes, to yield water and carbon dioxide. The term redox comes ... very eager to give away electrons. Other kinds of reductants are hydride transfer reagents (NaBH 4 , LiAlH 4 ), these reagents are widely used in organic ...

Light-dependent reaction

... by chlorophyll or other photosynthetic pigments is used to drive a transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water (or some other donor molecule) to ... from a molecule of water, splitting it into O 2 and H + . The electrons transfer from the primary acceptor to plastoquinone, then to plastocyanin, ...

Plasmid

... Types of plasmid One way of grouping plasmids is by their ability to transfer to other bacteria. Conjugative plasmids contain so-called tra-genes , which perform the complex process of conjugation , the sexual transfer of plasmids to another bacterium (Fig. 4). Non-conjugative plasmids are ...

Proton pump

... ATP-producing organelles, reducing equivalents provided by electron transfer or photosynthesis power this translocation of protons. For example, the ... cytochrome mitochondrion chloroplast electron transfer chain proton pump inhibitor ATP synthase ...

Redox

... of sugar in the human body, through a series of very complex electron transfer processes, to yield water and carbon dioxide. The term redox comes ... very eager to give away electrons. Other kinds of reductants are hydride transfer reagents (NaBH 4 , LiAlH 4 ), these reagents are widely used in organic ...

Antibiotic

... to antibiotic resistance, frequently in bacteria that are known to also infect humans, although there has been little or no evidence as yet of such transfer of antibiotic resistance actually occurring. Antibiotic resistance Main article: Antibiotic resistance One side effect of misusing ...

ATP synthase

... ATP synthase is the most complex known and is made of 20 different types of subunits. See also mitochondrion chloroplast electron transfer chain proton pump transmembrane ATPase External links "ATP synthase - a splendid molecular machine" ...

Cloning

... means to create a new organism with the same genetic information as an existing one. In a modern context, this can involve somatic cell nuclear transfer in which the nucleus is removed from an egg cell and replaced with a nucleus extracted from a cell of the organism to be cloned (currently, both ...

Genetic code

... RNA , which is better suited for protein synthesis. This in turn is translated , by mediation of a machinery consisting of ribosomes and a set of transfer RNAs and associated enzymes , into an amino acid chain ( polypeptide ), which will then be folded into a protein . The gene sequence inscribed ...

Diffusion

... effect Laminar flow Liposomes List of biochemistry topics List of biology topics List of physics topics Mass transfer Materials science Mechanical ventilation NaKATPase Nervous system Neurotransmitter Nitric oxide Nobel Prize in ...

DNA

... (termed a codon ) formed from a sequence of three nucleotides (e.g. ACT, CAG, TTT). These codons can then be translated with messenger RNA and then transfer RNA, with a codon corresponding to a particular amino acid. Since there are 64 possible codons, most amino acids have more than one possible codon. ...

Morphogenesis

... major class of insects. Other multicellular organisms sometimes use similar mechanisms for axis formation, although the relative importance of signal transfer between the earliest cells of many developing organisms is greater than in the example described here. Maternal effect genes mRNA ...

Endomembrane system

... act as a waste disposal system. Vacuoles act as storage units in some cells. Vesicles are small membrane-enclosed transport units that can transfer molecules between different compartments. ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... over which diffusion must take place, or in other words the thickness of the membrane, D . Fick's first law is also important in radiation transfer equations. However, in this context it becomes inaccurate when the diffusion constant is low and the radiation becomes limited by the speed of light ...

Cell membrane

... the Border of Division Electrolite-Biological Membrane", Dep. VINITI (No 3633-71), Moscow, 1971, 20 pp. (In Russian) Z.D. Urushadze, "The Charge transfer Across the Model Biological Membrane".- Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, Series of Biology , 12, No 5, 1986, pp. 347-352 (In ...

Genetic code

... RNA , which is better suited for protein synthesis. This in turn is translated , by mediation of a machinery consisting of ribosomes and a set of transfer RNAs and associated enzymes , into an amino acid chain ( polypeptide ), which will then be folded into a protein . The gene sequence inscribed ...

Genomics

... related organisms, but not in other members of one of the clades, has led to the theory that these sequences were acquired by horizontal gene transfer . This phenomenon is most prominent in thermophilic bacteria, where it seems that genes were transferred from Archaea to Eubacteria . It has ...

Human Genome Project

... by most scientists. Another goal of the HGP was to develop faster, more efficient methods for DNA sequencing and sequence analysis and the transfer of these technologies to industry. Today, the sequence of the human DNA is stored in databases and is available for everyone on the Internet . ...

Metabolism

... of NADPH from glucose. Protein catabolism , the hydrolysis of proteins into amino acids . Aerobic respiration Electron transfer chain Oxidative phosphorylation Anaerobic respiration , Cori cycle Lactic acid fermentation Fermentation ...

Microbiology

... adaptive mutations arise from preadaptation rather than directed mutation. For this purpose, they invented replica plating , which allowed them to transfer numerous bacterial colonies from their specific locations on one agar-filled petri dish to analogous locations on several other petri dishes. After ...

Morphogenesis

... major class of insects. Other multicellular organisms sometimes use similar mechanisms for axis formation, although the relative importance of signal transfer between the earliest cells of many developing organisms is greater than in the example described here. Maternal effect genes mRNA ...

Oswald Avery

... of DNA, and thus the birth of modern genetics and molecular biology. The experiment was a simple one in concept. Bacteria are able to transfer genetic material through a liquid medium to other bacteria, transforming (giving new genetic characteristics) them. Therefore if bacteria ...

Phage

... - Lysogen T4 phage (169 to 170 kbp , 200 nm long) T7 phage R17 phage M13 phage - Phagemid See also Horizontal gene transfer One-step growth curve ...

Phylogenetic tree

... as Maximum Likelihood or Bayesian inference . Caveats By their very nature, phylogenetic trees hide any hybridization and lateral gene transfer (Woese 2002) that may have taken place. For these reasons, the proposed PhyloCode (see External Link below) does not assume a tree structure. ...

Cell membrane

... the Border of Division Electrolite-Biological Membrane", Dep. VINITI (No 3633-71), Moscow, 1971, 20 pp. (In Russian) Z.D. Urushadze, "The Charge transfer Across the Model Biological Membrane".- Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, Series of Biology , 12, No 5, 1986, pp. 347-352 (In ...
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