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Transduction in Biological Definition

Signal transduction

... In biology , signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one ... into another. Processes referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical ... referred to as signal transduction. In many transduction processes, an increasing number of enzymes and ...

Developmental biology

... the possible proteins. The transcription factors are regulated by signal transduction pathways that relay signals from outside of cells to the cell nucleus. Signal transduction pathways often involve receptors , receptor ligands and enzymes such as ...

Insulin

... metabolic level 4 Regulatory action on blood glucose 5 Signal transduction 6 The brain and hypoglycemia 7 Diseases and syndromes caused by ... inhibited by the stress hormone adrenalin (epinephrine). Signal transduction There are special transport channels in cell membranes through which ...

Oncogene

... Protooncogene A proto oncogene is a gene that is involved in signal transduction and execution of mitogenic signals, usually through its protein ... kinases (through overexpression ). Adaptor proteins in signal transduction . Transcription factors . Related articles Tumor ...

Transmembrane receptor

... play a unique and important role in cellular communications and signal transduction . Many transmembrane receptors are composed of two or more protein ... and internalization (see ubiquitin ). See also Signal transduction G protein Second messenger Neuromodulators ...

Bacterium

... in bacteria: transformation (the transfer of naked DNA from one bacterial cell to another in solution, this can include dead bacteria), transduction (the transfer of viral, bacterial, or both bacterial and viral DNA from one cell to another via bacteriophage) and; bacterial conjugation (the ...

Bioinformatics

... the use of computer simulations of cellular subsystems (such as the networks of metabolites and enzymes which comprise metabolism , signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks ) to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. Artificial life or ...

Biochemistry

... described. Other areas of biochemistry include the genetic code ( DNA , RNA ), protein synthesis , cell membrane transport, and signal transduction . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Development of biochemistry 2 Subdisciplines 3 See also 4 External links ...

Cell biology

... Golgi apparatus Lipid bilayer Membrane Mitochondrion Nucleus Organelle Passive transport Ribosome Signal transduction Vesicle Important publications in cell biology External links The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology ...

Bioinformatics

... the use of computer simulations of cellular subsystems (such as the networks of metabolites and enzymes which comprise metabolism , signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks ) to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. Artificial life or ...

Cytoskeleton

... shape, form cytoplasmatic protuberancies (like pseudopods and microvillus ), participate in some cell-to-cell or cell-to-matrix junctions and the transduction of signals. They are also important for cytokinesis and, along with myosin , muscular contraction . Intermediate Filaments Main article: ...

Cytosol

... the internal fluid of the cell , and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here. Proteins within the cytosol play an important role in signal transduction pathways, glycolysis , and they act as intracellular receptors and ribosomes . In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol. ...

Enzyme

... can be browsed at http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/ Enzymes and classes of enzyme Adenylate cyclase : participate in signal transduction by converting ATP into cyclic AMP Alcohol dehydrogenase : breaks down alcohols to aldehydes in human liver; creates alcohol in yeast ...

Bacterium

... in bacteria: transformation (the transfer of naked DNA from one bacterial cell to another in solution, this can include dead bacteria), transduction (the transfer of viral, bacterial, or both bacterial and viral DNA from one cell to another via bacteriophage) and; bacterial conjugation (the ...

HeLa

... 18 (HPV18), and have different properties from normal cervical cells. They are used as model cancer cells and for studying cellular signal transduction . HeLa cells have proven difficult to control. They sometimes contaminate other cell cultures growing in the same laboratory, interfering with ...

Hormone

... function of hormones is to serve as a signal to the target cells; the action of hormones is determined by the pattern of secretion and the signal transduction of the receiving tissue. Hormone actions vary widely, but can include stimulation or inhibition of growth, induction or suppression of apoptosis ...

Ion channel

... compression of the membrane around them; for example when their cells swell or shrink. Such channels are believed to underlie touch sensation and the transduction of acoustic vibrations into the sensation of sound. G-protein-gated channels open in response to G protein -activation via its receptor. An ...

Lac repressor

... lac repressor hooks up to lactose and changes shape and detaches from the DNA. The technical term for this shape-shifting is " allosteric signal transduction ". See also Lac operon ...

Lipase

... D., and M. Cygler. 1997. Lipases and alpha/beta hydrolase fold. Methods Enzymol 284:85-107. Spiegel, S., D. Foster, and R. Kolesnick. 1996. Signal transduction through lipid second messengers. Curr Opin Cell Biol 8:159-67. Svendsen, A. 2000. Lipase protein engineering. Biochim Biophys Acta 1543:223-238. ...

Myosin

... the mechanism for muscle contraction , utilizing energy from ATP . The specific conformational rearrangements throughout the chemo-mechanical transduction process are still not known. The Muscle is composed of single muscle cells (sometimes known as "muscle fibers"). Within the cells are myofibrils ...

Phosphorylation

... sites. Upon the deactivating signal, the protein becomes dephosphorylated again and stops working. This is the mechanism in many forms of signal transduction , for example the way in which incoming light is processed in the light-sensitive cells of the retina . Signaling networks The network ...

Prokaryote

... the cell divides in two. However, they show a variety of parasexual processes where DNA is transferred between cells, such as transformation and transduction . While prokaryotes are nearly always unicelluar, some are capable of forming groups of cells called colonies . Unlike many eukaryotic ...

Protein

... Functions Proteins are involved in practically every function performed by a cell, including regulation of cellular functions such as signal transduction and metabolism . For example, protein catabolism requires only a few enzymes termed proteases . Mechanisms of protein regulation Various ...

Second messenger

... In biology , second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in signal transduction to relay a signal within a cell . They are synthesized or released by specific enzymatic reactions, usually as a result of an external signal ...
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