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Systems in Biological Definition

Artificial life

... and a NASA group called the Self-Replicating systems Concept Team performed a 1980 study on the ... Artificial life is the study of artificial systems that exhibit behavior characteristic of natural ... to the emerging field of complex adaptive systems , working at the Center for Nonlinear Studies (a ...

Biology

... in that it does not usually describe biological systems in terms of objects which obey immutable physical ... environment . One of the reasons that biological systems can be difficult to study is that there are so ... the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interrelationship of ...

Bioinformatics

... in computational biology often overlaps with systems biology . Major research efforts in the field ... Structure prediction 2.4 Modeling biological systems 2.5 Other applications 3 Software ... also structural motif . Modeling biological systems Main article: ...

Biophysics

... biologists attempt to elucidate the complex systems of interactions that give rise to the processes ... and quantum mechanics ) to larger systems such as tissues or organs (hence the inclusion of ... assemblies spectroscopy , imaging etc. systems neuroscience neural encoding bionics ...

Brain

... Computer scientists have produced computer systems called neural networks that are loosely based ... tools of chaos theory and dynamical systems . Interfacing brains with machines The ... it is relatively small. Vertebrate nervous systems are distinguished by encephalization and ...

Chromatography

... chromatographic system. In continuous development systems like HPLC or GC, where the compounds are eluted ... and detection. In interrupted development systems like TLC the retention is measured as the ... chromatography (HPLC) Modern HPLC systems are highly automated High performance liquid ...

Bioinformatics

... in computational biology often overlaps with systems biology . Major research efforts in the field ... Structure prediction 2.4 Modeling biological systems 2.5 Other applications 3 Software ... also structural motif . Modeling biological systems Main article: ...

Computed axial tomography

... to produce the images. Modern multi-detector CT systems can complete a scan of the chest in less time ... the gantry. Newer machines with faster computer systems and newer software strategies can process not ... helical or spiral CT machines. Their computer systems integrate the data of the moving individual ...

Evolution

... theory 4.1 Evolution and ethical systems 4.2 Evolution and religion 5 ... particularly RNA , and the behavior of complex systems . Though the origins of life are murky, other ... , or herpetology but use those organisms as systems to answer general questions in evolution. ...

Flagellum

... to components of the type III secretion systems , but the components of bacterial and archaeal ... assembled through the action of type II secretion systems (the nomenclature of pili and protein secretion systems is not consistent). These differences mean ...

Homeostasis

... ecological , biological , and social systems are homeostatic. They oppose change to maintain ... lead the system to stop functioning. Complex systems , such as a human body, must have homeostasis to maintain stability and to survive. These systems do not only have to endure to survive; they must ...

Human

... Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environments ( Antarctica , outer ... and ethnicities . The invention of writing systems some 5000 years ago , allowing the preservation ... art , literature , lifestyles , value systems , traditions , rituals , and beliefs . One ...

Immune system

... intersection between innate and adaptive immune systems 3 Disorders of the human immune system ... disorders arise from failures of discriminatory systems (see Immune System#Disorders of the human immune ... immunity and many of the mechanisms between the systems are common, so it not always possible to draw a ...

Nervous system

... 1 Anatomy 2 Vertebrate nervous systems 3 Nervous system diversity 4 See also ... across synapses . Vertebrate nervous systems The nervous systems of vertebrate animals are often divided into a ...

Origin of life

... polymers. It is therefore hypothesized that such systems may be able to evolve into autocatalytic sets ... solutions are heated. Other possibilities include systems of chemical reactions taking place within clay ... clues as to how life originates. Complex systems See also Category:Origin of life ...

Reverse genetics

... the genome. While RNA interference relies on systems within the cell for efficacy (e.g. the dicer ... oligos. While RNAi acts by directing cellular systems to degrade target messenger RNA (mRNA), ... mRNA degradation. Morpholinos are effective is systems ranging in complexity from cell-free translation ...

Blood type

... 1% Other blood types Other blood type systems exist to describe the presence or absence of ... East Asians and Native Americans . MNS systems gives blood types of M, N, and MN. It has use in ... system describes a set of 21 antigens. Other systems include Colton , Kell , Kidd , Lewis , ...

Skeleton

... may also acquire skeletons.) Skeletal systems are commonly divided into three types - external ... skeleton ), though hydrostatic skeletal systems may be classified separately from the other two ... support structures. Large external skeletal systems support proportionally less weight than ...

Systems biology

... systems biology is an academic field that seeks to ... data as an attempt to understand how biological systems function. By studying the relationships and ... (e.g. organelles , cells , physiological systems , organisms etc.) it is hoped that eventually ...

Cell growth

... 1.2 Cell size regulation in mammals 1.3 Other experimental systems for the study of cell size regulation 2 Cell reproduction ... so most human neurons are releatively small. h Other experimental systems for the study of cell size regulation One common means to produce very ...

Culture

... not been complicated and corrupted by the highly-stratified capitalist systems of the West. Today most social scientists reject the monadic ... and encode and communicate them symbolically . Since these symbolic systems were learned and taught, they began to develop independently of biological ...

Diabetes mellitus

... major risks of the disorder are chronic problems affecting multiple organ systems which will eventually arise in patients with poor glycemic control. Many ... if only economically. Diabetes is enormously expensive for healthcare systems and governments. In North America, it is the largest single non-traumatic ...

Digital organism

... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 History 2 systems for digital organisms research 3 External links 4 Further ... and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA). systems for digital organisms research Amoeba Avida Core world ...

Escherichia coli

... The Presence of Coliform Bacteria in Canadian Pulp and Paper Mill Water systems - a Cause for Concern? - by Dr. F. Archibald (abstract only) Coliform Bacteria and Nitrogen Fixation in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Treatment systems - by Dr. F. Archibald (full text) Investigation of a UK outbreak by ...

Cold-blooded

... important chemical reaction, poikilotherms may have four to ten enzyme systems that operate at different temperatures. As a result, poikilotherms often ... poikilothermic animals do not easily support complex, high-energy organ systems such as brains or wings. Some of the most complex adaptations known ...

Free energy

... ways. For instance, in chemistry one is usually concerned with fluid systems at constant temperature, undergoing chemical reaction in closed containers ... the Gibbs free energy . Physicists carry out more abstract analysis of systems which are not necessarily fluid. In that context, the Helmholtz free ...

Gene regulatory network

... for each gene "node", to assist in modeling behaviour of a cell (see systems biology ). Mathematical models of GRNs have been developed to allow ... results with time series observations. See also Operon systems biology Bibliography James M. Bower, Hamid Bolouri (editors), ...

Immunology

... immunology. This includes the immunological function of cells, organs and systems not normally associated with immune system, as well as the function of the ... , while not possessing true adaptive immunity, show highly evolved systems of innate immunity, and are additionally protected from external injury ...

Isozyme

... microsatellites ), they are still amongst the quickest and cheapest marker systems to develop, and remain (as of 2005 ) an excellent choice for projects ... need to identify low levels of genetic variation, e.g. quantifying mating systems . References Hunter, R. L. and C.L. Merkert. (1957) ...

Neuroscience

... subsystems like that which subserves visual perception , up to large systems like the cerebral cortex or the cerebellum , and at the highest level ... and the zebrafish Danio rerio . Cognitive neuroscience and systems neuroscience - These two fields are interested in explaining the link ...

Osmoregulation

... 4 Osmoregulation in protoctists and animals 5 Vertebrate excretory systems 5.1 Waste products of nitrogen metabolism 5.2 How osmoregulation ... water excreted through the excretory system . Vertebrate excretory systems Waste products of nitrogen metabolism Ammonia is a toxic by-product ...

Replication

... Patent # 4432057). This is especially true in a multiplicity of computer systems (multiprocessors). Storage or backup of the same data on multiple file systems is an example for replication. Database replication is implemented, for ...

Vestibular system

... 1 Semicircular canals 1.1 Push-pull systems 1.2 Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) 1.3 Mechanics 1.4 Central ... to as lateral , superior , and inferior , respectively.) Push-pull systems The canals are cleverly arranged in such a way that each canal on the ...

Zoology

... 1 History of zoology 2 Branches of biology relevant to zoology 3 systems of classification 4 Notable zoologists 5 See also 6 Sources ... , ornithology study mechanisms that are specific to those groups. systems of classification Main article: Scientific classification ...

Cancer

... rate, such as epithelials , show a higher risk of becoming tumor cells than those which divide less, for example neurons . In cellular model systems , cells are exposed to carcinogenic influences (chemicals, radiation). In these systems, the first signs of a cell developing into a tumor cell are: ...

Cladistics

... of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. It forms the basis for most modern systems of classification, which seek to group organisms by evolutionary relationships. In contrast, phenetics groups organisms based on their overall ...

Competitive exclusion principle

... competition , competition-colonization trade-offs , and lag prevent exclusion (ignoring stochastic extinction over longer time-frames). However, such systems tend to be analytically intractable. In addition, many can theoretically support an unlimited number of species. A new paradox is created: Most ...

Edward's syndrome

... and clenched fists with overlapping fingers. Those with Edward's syndrome also have heart defects , and other organ malformations such that most systems of the body are affected. Edward's Syndrome also results in significant developmental delays. For this reason a full-term Edward's syndrome baby ...

Morphogenesis

... attach to the egg cytoskeleton but they concentrate at the posterior ends of the eggs. Hunchback and caudal mRNAs lack special location control systems and are fairly evenly spread throughout the interior of egg cells. mRNA distributions When the mRNAs from the maternal effect genes are ...

Evolutionary biology

... who may have a specialist training in particular organisms such as mammalogy , ornithology , or herpetology but use those organisms as systems to answer general questions in evolution. It also generally includes paleontogists who use fossils to answer questions about the mode and tempo ...
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