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Synthase in Biological Definition

ATP synthase

... An ATP synthase ( EC 3.6.3.14) is a general term for an enzyme ... is: ADP + P i → ATP ATP synthase in E. coli These enzymes are of crucial ... of cells. In mitochondria , the F O F 1 ATP synthase has a long history of scientific study. The F 1 ...

Ion gradient

... used for driving the molecular motor enzyme ATP synthase to make the necessary conformational changes ... are also be made by bacteria by running ATP synthase in reverse, this is used to drive flagellas. The F 1 F O ATP synthase is a reversible enzyme. Large enough quantities ...

ATPase

... active transport . ATP synthetase The ATP synthetase (or ATP synthase ) of mitochondria and chloroplasts is an anabolic enzyme that ... protons against their thermodynamic gradient. External links "ATP synthase - a splendid molecular machine" ...

Electron transfer chain

... power membrane transporters and adenosine triphosphate synthesis by ATP synthase (aka the F 0 F 1 particle). They are used in photophosphorylation ... c reductase . Complex IV - Cytochrome c oxidase . Complex V - ATP synthase , also known as the F 0 F 1 particle. All of these are proteolipid ...

Mitochondrion

... is built up. The only exit for these protons is through the ATP synthase complex. By transporting protons from the intermembrane space back into the matrix, the ATP synthase complex can make ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (P i ). This ...

Mitochondrion

... is built up. The only exit for these protons is through the ATP synthase complex. By transporting protons from the intermembrane space back into the matrix, the ATP synthase complex can make ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (P i ). This ...

Proton pump

... cellular membranes, ATP itself powers this transport. The F 0 F 1 ATP synthase of mitochondria and the CF 1 ATP synthetase of chloroplasts, in ... electron transfer chain proton pump inhibitor ATP synthase ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... can be produced by various cellular processes, most typically in mitochondria by oxidative phosphorylation under the catalytic influence of ATP synthase or in the case of plants in chloroplasts by photosynthesis . The main fuels for ATP synthesis are glucose and fatty acids . Initially glucose ...

Chemiosmotic hypothesis

... FADH 2 to create a proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane and that this energy was used by a reversible proton pump , the ATP synthase , to create ATP . This was a radical proposal at the time, and not well accepted. The prevailing view was that the energy of electron transfer was ...

Citric acid cycle

... 2 O ) H 2 O IX. L - Malate 9. Malate dehydrogenase Oxidation NAD + NADH + H + X. Oxaloacetate 10. Citrate synthase Condensation XI. Acetyl-CoA The sum of all reactions in the citric acid cycle is: Acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD + + ...

Crista

... Cristae are the infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion . They are studded with proteins, including ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes , and function in cellular respiration . They provide more surface area for cellular respiration to happen. ...

Enzyme

... : those enzymes that hydrolyze ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate in order to drive some other energetically unfavorable reaction ATP synthase : creates ATP from ADP, inorganic phosphate and some form of energy Autolysin : general term for enzymes that cause cells to die ...

Citric acid cycle

... 2 O ) H 2 O IX. L - Malate 9. Malate dehydrogenase Oxidation NAD + NADH + H + X. Oxaloacetate 10. Citrate synthase Condensation XI. Acetyl-CoA The sum of all reactions in the citric acid cycle is: Acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD + + ...

Light-dependent reaction

... chain produces a proton-motive force, pumping H + ions across the membrane; this produces a concentration gradient which can be used to power ATP synthase . This pathway is known as cyclic photophosphorylation, and it produces neither O 2 nor NADPH. Noncyclic photophosphorylation The other ...

Oxidative phosphorylation

... c oxidase , and cytochrome reductase ) to pump H + across the membrane against a proton gradient . A large protein complex called ATP synthase is embedded in that membrane and enables protons to pass through in both directions; it generates ATP when the proton moves with (down) the ...

Light-dependent reaction

... chain produces a proton-motive force, pumping H + ions across the membrane; this produces a concentration gradient which can be used to power ATP synthase . This pathway is known as cyclic photophosphorylation, and it produces neither O 2 nor NADPH. Noncyclic photophosphorylation The other ...

Proton-motive force

... across the inner mithochondrial membrane. It is generated by energy from the citric acid cycle and is utilized in the synthesis of ATP via ATP synthase . In plants, the Proton Motive Force also exists in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast , where it is generated by the light reaction of ...

Signal transduction

... is a free radical which diffuses through the plasma membrane and affects nearby cells. NO is made from arginine and oxygen by the enzyme NO synthase , with citrulline as a by-product. NO works mainly through activation of its target receptor, the enzyme soluble guanylate cyclase , which when ...
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