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Substitution in Biological Definition

Alcohol

... 8.2.1 Deprotonation 8.2.2 Nucleophilic substitution 8.2.3 Dehydration 8.2.4 Esterification ... can (if activated first) undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions. For more details see the #Chemistry ... O (equilibrium to the left) Nucleophilic substitution The OH group is not a good leaving group ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... or "unexpressed" (see synonymous or silent substitution ). Such changes are presumed to have little or no ... , multicellular organisms, the nucleotide substitution must arise within one of the many sex cells ... cases they may become "fixed"--meaning that the substitution they carry becomes a universal feature of the ...

Genetic code

... X = any nucleotide) tends to code for hydrophobic amino acids. However, the genetic code is not perfect as minor changes such as the single-base substitution in sickle cell anaemia is disasterous. The hydrophilic glutamate (Glu) is substituted by the hydrophobic valine (Val) which reduces the ...

Genetic code

... X = any nucleotide) tends to code for hydrophobic amino acids. However, the genetic code is not perfect as minor changes such as the single-base substitution in sickle cell anaemia is disasterous. The hydrophilic glutamate (Glu) is substituted by the hydrophobic valine (Val) which reduces the ...

Phospholipid

... amino alcohol formed from palmitate and serine . The amino terminal is acylated with a by a long-chain acyl CoA to yield ceramide . Subsequent substitution of the terminal hydroxyl group by phosphatidyl choline forms sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin is present in all eukaryotic cell membranes , but ...

Species

... two population groups are so close that the distinction between them rests on an obscure and microscopic difference in morphology, or a single base substitution in a DNA sequence, then a demonstration of restricted gene flow between the populations will probably be difficult in any case. More typically, ...
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