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Substance in Biological Definition

DNA

... led to the identification and naming of DNA as a substance distinct from RNA. Friedrich Miescher ( 1844 - 1895 ) discovered a substance he called "nuclein" in 1869 . Somewhat later, he ... Richard Altmann , named it "nucleic acid". This substance was found to exist only in the chromosomes. ...

Monoclonal antibody

... Production If a foreign substance (an antigen ) is injected into a vertebrate ... Once monoclonal antibodies for a given substance have been produced, they can be used to detect ... instance in a Western blot test (to detect a substance in a solution) or an immunofluorescence test ...

Blood type

... antigen B on the cell and produce antibodies to substance A in their serum. Type AB people have red ... B, and do not produce antibodies against either substance in their serum. Therefore, a person with type AB ... with Bombay phenotype do not express substance H on their red blood cells and therefore do not ...

Alexander Fleming

... ( August 6 , 1881 – March 11 , 1955 ) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum . Biography ...

Antigen

... haptens ). There are several kinds of antigens: Immunogen - Any substance that provokes an immune response (provokes immunity) when introduced into ... if its molecular form is changed. Allergen - An allergen is any substance that causes an allergic reaction . It can be eaten, inhaled, injected or ...

Chromatography

... Retention The retention is a measure of the speed at which a substance moves in a chromatographic system. In continuous development systems like ... the sample will contact the paper and may form interactions with it. Any substance that will react with (and thus bond to) the paper cannot be measured using ...

Drug

... A drug is any substance that can be used to treat an illness , to relieve a symptom , to enhance ... as a stimulant) may be. Depending on the definition used, the same substance may even be considered both a food and a drug at the same time. The term ...

Neuron

... with basophilic dyes will show numerous microscopic clumps of Nissl substance (named after German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Franz Nissl , ... reticulum and associated ribosomes . The prominence of the Nissl substance can be explained by the fact that nerve cells are metabolically very ...

Operon

... of an operon (that is, the "operator") is turned on unless a specific substance is bound to the operator. This substance is therefore called a repressor. In summary: The "operator" is a ...

Protein

... πρωτειοξ, parce quil parat tre la substance primitive ou principale de la nutrition animale.» translated as: ... because it appears to be the primitive or principle substance of animal nutrition." Investigation of proteins and their ...

Stem cell

... cells genetically engineered to convert a separately injected non-toxic substance into a cancer-killing agent. Within days the adult stem cells had migrated into the cancerous area and the injected substance was able to reduce tumor mass by 80 percent. Spinal cord ...

Activation energy

... possibilities result in the release of energy (shown on the enthalpy profile diagram, Fig. 1 , as both positions lie below the transition state). A substance that modifies the transition state to lower the activation energy is termed a catalyst ; a biological catalyst is termed an enzyme . ...

Active transport

... also Types There are two main types, primary and secondary . In primary transport energy is directly coupled to movement of desired substance across a membrane, independent of any other species. Secondary transport concerns the diffusion of one species across a membrane to drive the ...

Alcohol

... Arabic definite article); however, the precise origin is unclear. It was introduced into Europe , together with the art of distillation and the substance itself, around the 12th century by various European authors who translated and popularized the discoveries of Islamic alchemists . A popular ...

Antibiotic

... of the enzyme lysozyme to kill bacteria, Fleming realized that the mold was secreting something that stopped bacterial growth. He knew that this substance might have enormous utility to medicine. Although he was unable to purify the compound (the beta-lactam ring in the penicillin molecule was not ...

Chromatin

... Chromatin is the substance of a chromosome and consists of a complex of DNA and protein in eukaryotic cells . It can be made visible by staining (thus the name which ...

Diabetes mellitus

... in Scotland suggested diabetics were deficient in a single chemical that was normally produced by the pancreas - he proposed calling this substance insulin. The endocrine role of the pancreas in metabolism, and indeed the existence of insulin, was not fully clarified until 1921 , when Sir ...

Digestion

... Digestion is the process whereby a biological entity processes a substance, in order to chemically convert the substance into nutrients . Digestion occurs at the multicellular , cellular , and sub-cellular levels. Digestion usually involves mechanical manipulation ...

Endodermis

... the flow of water. Endodermis is tightly packed together and contains Casparian strips on their radial walls which are made of suberin mainly, a waxy substance which prevents water from flowing back into the soil. Water is thus forced toward the center of the root, into the xylem , where it is then ...

Eye

... light is detected and transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve . The eye is typically roughly spherical, filled with a transparent gel-like substance called the vitreous humour , with a focusing lens and often a muscle called the iris that controls how much light enters. Although they are ...

Fehling's solution

... Fehling's solution is a solution used to detect aldehyde functional groups . The substance to be tested is heated together with Fehling's solution; a red precipitate indicates the presence of aldehydes or aldehyde groups. An example for ...

Gene regulatory network

... can be in one of two states: on or off. For a gene, "on" corresponds to the gene being expressed; for inputs and outputs, "on" corresponds to the substance being present. Time is viewed as proceeding in discrete steps. At each step, the new state of a node is a boolean function of the prior states ...

Photosynthesis

... of the plant as it grew, discovered that, with the soil mass changed very little, the mass of the growing plant must come from the water, the only substance he added to the potted plant. Joseph Priestley , a chemist and minister, discovered that when he isolated a volume of air under an inverted jar, ...

Lipid

... membranes. Micelles and bilayers separate out from the polar milieu by a process known as the "hydrophobic effect." When dissolving a nonpolar substance in a polar environment, the polar molecules (i.e. water in an aqueous solution) become more ordered around the dissolved nonpolar substance, since ...

Macromolecule

... According to IUPAC recommendations the term macromolecule is reserved for an individual molecule and the term polymer is used as to denote a substance composed of macromolecules. Polymer may also be employed unambiguously as an adjective, according to accepted usage, e.g. polymer blend, polymer ...

Malaria

... as the discomfort of insect bites. Extracts from the plant Artemisia (specifically Artemisia annua ), containing the compound artemisinin , a substance unrelated to the quinine derivatives, offer some future promise. Prospects of disease control Vaccines for malaria are under development, with ...

Neurotransmitter

... factor (GRF) Somatostatins: somatostatin Tachykinins : neurokinin A neurokinin B neuropeptide A neuropeptide gamma substance P Biogenic amines : acetylcholine ( ACh ) Other: nitric oxide ( NO ) carbon monoxide ( CO ) anandamide ...

Origin of life

... solar system where volatiles are not evaporated by solar heating. Comets are encrusted by outer layers of dark material, thought to be a tar -like substance composed of complex organic material formed from simple carbon compounds after reactions initiated mostly by irradiation by ultraviolet light. It ...

Redox

... numbers (eg. H 2 O 2 , MnO 4 - , CrO 3 , OsO 4 ) or very electronegative substances that can gain one or two extra electrons by oxidizing a substance ( O 2 , O 3 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 ) Substances that have the ability to reduce other substances are said to be reductive and are known ...

Photosynthesis

... of the plant as it grew, discovered that, with the soil mass changed very little, the mass of the growing plant must come from the water, the only substance he added to the potted plant. Joseph Priestley , a chemist and minister, discovered that when he isolated a volume of air under an inverted jar, ...

Redox

... numbers (eg. H 2 O 2 , MnO 4 - , CrO 3 , OsO 4 ) or very electronegative substances that can gain one or two extra electrons by oxidizing a substance ( O 2 , O 3 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 ) Substances that have the ability to reduce other substances are said to be reductive and are known ...

Thermoregulation

... respiratory and circulatory systems . The heat of the body is generated by the chemical changesthose of oxidationundergone not by any particular substance or in any one place, but by the tissues at large. Wherever destructive metabolism ( catabolism ) is going on, heat is being set free. When a muscle ...

X-ray crystallography

... which physically interact with the incoming X-ray photons to diffract them, not the atomic nuclei . The material and molecular structure of a substance can often be inferred by quantitative study of this pattern. It is widely used in chemistry and biochemistry to determine the structures of an ...
Other Contents
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