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Studies in Biological Definition

Apoptosis

... an inflammatory response [5] , [6] . In studies on mouse embryos lacking PS receptors conducted ... and lungs, leading to neonatal lethality. These studies show how critical is the role of PS receptor ... "worm people" at Cambridge Sydney Brenner 's studies on animal development began in the late 1950s ...

Biology

... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) ... , and histology . Developmental biology studies life at the level of the development or ontogeny ... interactions are regulated. Cell biology studies the physiological properties of cells , as ...

Biodiversity

... higher than background extinction rates. Some studies show that about one of eight known plant species ... and animal habitats. An increasing number of studies indicate that elevated rates of extinction are ... stability as its species are made extinct, these studies warn that the global ecosystem is destined for ...

Cancer

... or in animals do not always work well in people. studies are done with cancer patients to find out whether ... cancers of many sites. Hundreds of epidemiologic studies have confirmed this association. Further support ... prevention comes from observational epidemiologic studies that show associations between modifiable life ...

Culture

... 2 Cultural change 3 Cultural studies 4 List of cultures 4.1 Cultures of ... different culture by an individual. Cultural studies Cultural studies developed in the late 20th century in part ...

Ecological genetics

... ecological scale. While molecular genetics studies the structure and function of genes at a ... (and the related field of population genetics ) studies wild populations of organisms. studies are often done on insects and other organisms ...

Genetics

... 1970 Restriction enzymes were discovered in studies of a bacterium, Haemophilius influenzae , ... discipline is population genetics which studies the distribution of and change in allele ... on ecological issues. While molecular genetics studies the structure and function of genes at a ...

Marcello Malpighi

... paternal grandmother died, he had to abandon his studies for more than two years to settle family affairs. ... Research Malpighi used the microscope for studies on skin , kidney , and for the first ... taste buds of human tongue. Some of his studies he made by vivisection . He also tried to study ...

Mitochondrion

... chain 3 Use in population genetic studies 4 The endosymbiotic theory 5 External ... of ATP synthase. Use in population genetic studies Main article: mitochondrial genetics ... evolution . See: mitochondrial Eve . Recent studies have, however, cast doubt on this hypothesis. ...

Mitochondrion

... chain 3 Use in population genetic studies 4 The endosymbiotic theory 5 External ... of ATP synthase. Use in population genetic studies Main article: mitochondrial genetics ... evolution . See: mitochondrial Eve . Recent studies have, however, cast doubt on this hypothesis. ...

Systems biology

... 1 From genes to patients 2 Multidisciplinary studies 3 Approaches 3.1 Hypothesis-driven ... control mechanisms. Multidisciplinary studies ... The studies that need to be undertaken by systems biology ...

Twin

... births 3.2 Predisposing factors 3.3 Twin studies 4 Twinning in animals 5 See also ... may have different genders or the same gender. studies show that there is a genetic basis for fraternal ... rate of in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Twin studies ...

Virus

... genome, viruses have been even more important in studies of animal cells than in studies of bacteria. Numerous studies have demonstrated the utility of animal viruses ...

Biophysics

... biophysics' relatively recent appearance as a scientific discipline. The studies included under the umbrella of biophysics range from sequence comparison ... 6 See also 7 External links Overview Traditional studies in biology are conducted using statistical ensemble experiments, using ...

Eukaryote

... by the end of the Cambrian , around 500 million years ago. Genetic studies during the 1980s and 1990s left most eukaryotes in an unresolved "crown" ... groups branched first and so were considered basal. However, newer studies contradict this, and a new picture has been slow to develop. Most ...

Insulin

... is not a sensible choice. Several large, well designed, long term studies have conclusively shown that diabetic complications decrease markedly, ... diabetic neuropathy , or kidney failure from diabetic nephropathy . These studies have demonstrated beyond doubt that, if it is possible for a patient, ...

Zoology

... have largely been subsumed into more broad areas of biology which include studies of mechanisms common to both plants and animals. The biology of animals ... zoology ) See also botany - the area of biology which studies plants list of biologists zootomy - the study of animal ...

Alfred Russel Wallace

... . One of his better known species descriptions during this trip is the gliding tree frog Rhacophorus nigropalmatus , Wallace's flying frog. His studies there were eventually published in 1869 as The Malay Archipelago . Theory of evolution In 1855 , Wallace published a paper, "On the Law ...

Allele frequency

... frequencies of all the alleles of a given gene often are graphed together as an allele frequency distribution histogram . Population genetics studies the different "forces" that might lead to changes in the distribution and frequencies of alleles -- in other words, to evolution . Besides ...

Ames test

... predict the mutagenic properties within a living system, specifically the source of the S-9 enzymes. Mutagenic and carcinogenic correlation studies have shown that the majority of substances shown to be mutagenic by an Ames assay will be carcinogenic in humans. ...

Animal

... however - for instance adult echinoderms are radially symmetric, and certain parasitic worms have extremely simplified body structures. Genetic studies have considerably changed our understanding of the relationships within the Bilateria. Most appear to belong to four major lineages: ...

Antibiotic resistance

... them to survive will live on to reproduce. They will then pass this trait to their offspring, which will be a fully resistant generation. Several studies have demonstrated that patterns of antibiotic usage greatly affect the number of resistant organisms which develop. Overuse of broad-spectrum ...

Artificial life

... Farmer was a key figure in tying artificial life research to the emerging field of complex adaptive systems , working at the Center for Nonlinear studies (a basic research section of Los Alamos National Laboratory ), just as its star chaos theorist Mitchell Feigenbaum was leaving. Farmer and ...

Bacterium

... Microbiology . 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1986. Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR. Impact of Culture-Independent studies on the Emerging Phylogenetic View of Bacterial Diversity . J Bacteriol 1998;180:4765-4774. Fulltext / PMID 9733676 . External links ...

Bioinformatics

... in computational biology involves developing statistical tools to separate signal from noise in high-throughput gene expression (HT) studies. HT studies are often used to determine the genes implicated in a disorder: one might compare microarray data from cancerous epithelial cells to data from ...

Botany

... is the study this and other relationships between plants and people. Gregor Mendel laid the foundations of genetics from his studies of plants. Understand fundamental life processes Plants are convenient organisms in which fundamental life processes (like cell division ...

Cell biology

... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or cytology ) is an academic discipline which studies the physiological properties of cells , as well as their behaviours , interactions, and environment ; this is done both on a microscopic and ...

Cell growth

... fusion to form syncytia . For example, very long (several inches) skeletal muscle cells are formed by fusion of thousands of myocytes . Genetic studies of the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed several genes that are required for the formation of multinucleated muscle cells by fusion of myocyes. ...

Cilium

... Almost all types of the mammalian cells have a single non-motile cilium called " Primary cilium " that has been neglected for a long time. Recent studies led scientists to re-evaluate its physiological role(s) in the cell signaling and the control of cell growth and development. A cilium has an ...

Bioinformatics

... in computational biology involves developing statistical tools to separate signal from noise in high-throughput gene expression (HT) studies. HT studies are often used to determine the genes implicated in a disorder: one might compare microarray data from cancerous epithelial cells to data from ...

Developmental biology

... Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. Modern developmental biology studies the genetic control of cell growth , differentiation and " morphogenesis ," which is the process that gives rise to tissues , organs and ...

Diabetes mellitus

... of uncontrolled diabetes which include kidney failure (requiring dialysis or transplant), blindness, heart disease and limb amputation. Recent studies show that use of statins might be needed in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular complications and mortality. Ideal control of ...

Down syndrome

... Trisomy 21 results in over- expression of genes located on chromosome 21. One of these is the superoxide dismutase gene. Some (but not all) studies have shown that the activity of the superoxide dismutase enzyme ( SOD ) is elevated in Down syndrome. SOD converts oxygen radicals to hydrogen ...

Morphogenesis

... specializations of the third thoracic segment and the abdominal segments. In 1995 , the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded for studies concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development to Christiane Nsslein-Volhard , Edward B. Lewis and Eric Wieschaus . Their ...

Endosymbiont

... indicates that these symbionts belong to the alpha group of the class Proteobacteria , relating them to Rhizobium and Thiobacillus . Other studies indicate that these subcuticular bacteria may be both abundant within their hosts and widely distributed among the Echinoderms in general. ...

Endosymbiont

... indicates that these symbionts belong to the alpha group of the class Proteobacteria , relating them to Rhizobium and Thiobacillus . Other studies indicate that these subcuticular bacteria may be both abundant within their hosts and widely distributed among the Echinoderms in general. ...

Epigenetics

... biologist C.H. Waddington is sometimes credited with coining the term epigenetics in 1942, when he defined it as “the branch of biology which studies the causal interactions between genes and their products which bring the phenotype into being”. However the term goes back at least to 1896 ...

Bacterium

... Microbiology . 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1986. Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR. Impact of Culture-Independent studies on the Emerging Phylogenetic View of Bacterial Diversity . J Bacteriol 1998;180:4765-4774. Fulltext / PMID 9733676 . External links ...

Eugenics

... Many early scientific journals devoted to the study of heredity in general were run by eugenicists and featured eugenics articles alongside studies of heredity in non-human organisms. After eugenics fell out of scientific favor, most references to eugenics were removed from both the textbooks and ...

Evolutionary biology

... is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species , as well as their change over time, i.e. their evolution . One who studies evolutionary biology is known as an evolutionary biologist , or less frequently evolutionist . Evolutionary biology is something of a meta ...
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