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Structural in Biological Definition

Alpha helix

... In proteins , the α helix is a major structural motif in secondary structure . It was first ... and zinc finger motifs. This is because of the structural coincidence of the α helix diameter of 12 ... DNA . α helices are one of the basic structural elements in proteins, together with beta sheets ....

Cytoskeleton

... tridimensional structure of the cell (they are structural components of the nuclear envelope or the ... are: made of vimentins , being the common structural support of many cells. made of keratin , ... of neural cells. made of Lamin , giving structural support to the nuclear envelope. ...

Intermediate filament

... one component of the cytoskeleton - important structural components of living cells. Their size is ... and are very stable; their main function being a structural one. Different types of IFs are distinguished by ... filament. Type III IFs Desmin IFs are structural components of the sarcomeres in muscle cells. ...

Molecular biology

... and ... is predominantly three-dimensional and structural - which does not mean, however, that it is merely ... as a temporary working copy of DNA to actual structural and enzymatic functions as well as a functional and structural part of the translational apparatus; and ...

Operon

... operator , a common promoter , and one or more structural genes that are controlled as a unit to produce ... unit of transcription consisting of one or more structural genes, and two associated segments of DNA : ... site for a repressor; transcription of the structural genes takes place unless a repressor is bound to ...

Pigment

... Some biological material has so-called structural color, which is the result of selective ... usually done with multilayer structures. Unlike structural color, pigment color is the same for all viewing ... pigment. Butterfly wings typically contain structural color, although many of them contain pigment as ...

Protein

... or subunits of enzymes. Other proteins play structural or mechanical roles, such as those that form the ... the spatial relationship of the secondary structural motifs to one another Quaternary structure ... (like insulin ) rather than as an enzyme or structural element. Proteins are generally classified as ...

Signal transduction

... Signal transduction of transmembrane receptors by structural changes 3.1.3 Signal transduction of ... the hormone, the whole receptor undergoes a structural shift that affects the intracellular domain, ... Signal transduction of transmembrane receptors by structural changes Signal transduction across the plasma ...

Structural biology

... structural biology is the study of the architecture and ... advanced light microscopes . The methods that structural biologists use to determine their structures ... e.g. protein folding ). A third approach that structural biologists take to understanding structure is ...

Apoptosis

... proteases called caspases , which carry out the cleaving of both structural and functional elements of the cell, resulting in the previously described ... that results from acute tissue injury [16] . They also noted that the structural changes characteristic of apoptosis (see the section on Morphology, above) ...

Bioinformatics

... function is unknown, one could infer that B may share A's function. In the structural branch of bioinformatics homology is used to determine which parts of the ... threading and de novo (from scratch) physics-based modeling. See also structural motif . Modeling biological systems Main article: Systems ...

Bioinformatics

... function is unknown, one could infer that B may share A's function. In the structural branch of bioinformatics homology is used to determine which parts of the ... threading and de novo (from scratch) physics-based modeling. See also structural motif . Modeling biological systems Main article: Systems ...

Kidney

... 1 Basic anatomy 1.1 Location 1.2 structural details 1.3 Organization 1.4 Homeostatic function of the kidney ... fat) which help to cushion it. Section of a kidney structural details In a normal human adult, each kidney is about 11 cm long and ...

Leaf

... the leaf axil . Not every species produces leaves with all of these structural parts. In some species, paired stipules are not obvious or are absent ... parenchyma tissue (= ground tissue), called pith , with usually some structural collenchyma tissue present. Leaf types, arrangements, and forms ...

Lipase

... H. van Tilbeurgh, A. Roussel, C. Cambillau, and R. Verger. 1998. structural basis for the substrate selectivity of pancreatic lipases and some related ... Acids 69:87-97. Egmond, M. R., and C. J. van Bemmel. 1997. Impact of structural Information on Understanding of Lipolytic Function, p. 119-129, Methods ...

Polysaccharide

... include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose . Contents ... metabolized with a savings of one ATP molecule. Cellulose The structural components of plants are formed primarily from cellulose . Wood is ...

Prion

... in the amino acid sequence of prion-forming regions lead to distinct structural features on the surface of prion fibers. As a result, only free protein ... proteins of yeast in their amino acid sequence. Nonetheless, the basic structural features (formation of amyloid fibers and a highly specific barrier to ...

Secondary structure

... to them receiving a Nobel Prize in Chemistry . In biochemistry and structural biology , the secondary structure of a protein includes alpha helices ... structure — quaternary structure — translation — structural motif Alignment Both protein and RNA secondary structures can ...

Tertiary structure

... NMR . The study of protein tertiary structure is known as structural biology . See also: primary structure -- secondary structure -- quaternary structure -- structural biology ...

Activation energy

... The Transition State is the point at which the original bonds have been stretched as far as they can without breaking (this is illustrated by the structural diagram below the graph.) The energy required to reach the transition state is equal to the activation energy of the reaction. At low ...

Active site

... processed by the enzyme. In noncompetitive inhibition , the inhibitor binds to the enzyme at another site, the allosteric site , and this causes a structural change in the enzyme such that the active site is rendered useless. Uncompetitive inhibition , is similar to noncompetitive inhibition except that ...

Anabolism

... of bone and increase of muscle mass. Catabolic processes involve "breaking down" organs and tissues. These processes involve "dismantling" of structural proteins for recycling for other purposes. Catabolic processes occur during starvation , stress and illness. Examples of catabolic processes ...

Beta sheet

... adjacent, parallel strand(s). The cumulative effect of multiple such hydrogen bonds arranged in this way contributes to the sheet's stability and structural rigidity and integrity. The α-C atoms of adjacent strands stand 350 picometres (0.35 nm) apart. The side chains from the amino acid ...

Biophysics

... in some biology department somewhere. To include some: gene regulation , single protein dynamics, bioenergetics, patch clamping , biomechanics . structural Biology - angstrom-resolution structures of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and complexes thereof. Biochemistry and chemistry ...

Biopolymer

... " fold " into characteristic shapes, which determine their biological functions and depend in a complicated way on their primary structures. structural biology is the study of the shapes of biopolymers. The convention for a protein is to list its constituent amino acid residues as they occur ...

Anabolism

... of bone and increase of muscle mass. Catabolic processes involve "breaking down" organs and tissues. These processes involve "dismantling" of structural proteins for recycling for other purposes. Catabolic processes occur during starvation , stress and illness. Examples of catabolic processes ...

Cellulose

... Cellulose ( C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n is a long-chain polymer polysaccharide carbohydrate , of beta-glucose . It forms the primary structural component of plants and is not digestible by humans . History and Applications Cellulose is a common material in plant cell walls and ...

Chromosome

... , which consists of DNA that is active, e.g., expressed as protein. Heterochromatin , which consists of mostly inactive DNA. It seems to serve structural purposes during the chromosomal stages. Heterochromatin can be further distinguished into two types: Constitutive heterochromatin , which is never ...

Cisterna

... cisternae carry Golgi enzymes to help modify cargo proteins traveling through them destined for other parts of the cell. The cisternae also carry structural proteins important for its maintenance as a flattened membrane and its stacking upon each other. The earliest cisternae are called the ...

Cladistics

... a lack of knowledge of characters, and these may invalidate cladograms. There is also concern that use of widely different data sets, for instance structural versus genetic characteristics, may produce widely different trees. However, by and large the phylogenetic approach to systematics has proven useful ...

Denaturation

... Denaturation in Biochemistry refers to a structural change in macromolecules caused by extreme conditions. Denaturation can refer to the intentional adulteration of ethyl alcohol so that it ...

Endomembrane system

... The endomembrane system is the system of internal membranes within eukaryotic cells that divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles . Prokaryotes do not have an endomembrane system and thus lack most organelles. The endomembrane system also ...

Enzyme

... product. Enzymes are usually specific as to the reactions they catalyze and the substrates that are involved in these reactions. Complementary structural properties of the enzyme and substrate are responsible for this specificity (Fig. 2). Kinetics In 1913, Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten ...

Evolution

... intact and are often reversible. This is called epigenetic inheritance and may include phenomena such as DNA methylation, prions , and structural inheritance . Investigations continue into whether these mechanisms allow for the production of specific beneficial heritable variation in response ...

Genomics

... 35% Steven Rose in The Guardian 22 Jan 2004 See also DNA motif gene therapy genetic engineering structural genomics List of omics topics in biology Sources and external links PLOS Primer: Comparative Genomics "The Human Genome Issue" ...

Homeobox

... melanogaster and have subsequently been identified in many other species, from insects to reptiles and mammals . The diagram to the right is a structural model of the Rattus norvegicus Pit-1 homeobox-containing protein (purple) bound to DNA. Pit-1 is a regulator of growth hormone gene ...

Human

... release, February 28, 2002, retrieved April 2, 2005 The World Factbook , U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, retrieved April 2, 2005 "Freud's structural and Topographical Models of Personality" , All-Psych online, retrieved April 2, 2005 "Conscious Awareness & The Unconscious Mind" by Rhawn ...

Keratin

... Microscopic view of stained keratin. Keratin is a protein used by numerous groups of animals as a structural element, and is a classic example of a fibrous protein . Keratin is a tough, insoluble protein found in the outer layer of the skin of human ...

Marfan syndrome

... tissue. Marfan's Syndrome is associated with incomplete penetrance, therefore not all persons carrying the mutation develop the disease. Without the structural support provided by fibrillin, many connective tissues are weakened, which can have severe consequences on support and stability. A related disease ...

Nephron

... Nephron of the kidney A nephron is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney . It is a tiny tubule consisting of a cluster of capillaries called the glomerulus , surrounded by a hollow bulb ...
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