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Strains in Biological Definition

Antigenic shift

... shift is the process by which two different strains of influenza combine to form a new subtype ... which is the natural mutation over time of known strains of influenza (or other things, in a more general ... the chance to mutate drastically. Flu strains are named after their types of hemagglutinin ...

Avian influenza

... thought to be possible infection vectors for H5N1 strains of avian flu (Kuiken et al, 2004). The ... 5 days. Symptoms in animals vary, but virulent strains can cause death within a few days. Avian ... had been exposed to 21 isolates of confirmed H5N1 strains obtained from ducks in China between 1999 and ...

Escherichia coli

... antibiotics is usually effective. Certain strains of E.coli are toxigenic (some produce a toxin ... the way poodles are recognizable from other strains (or "breeds") of dogs, and different strains of E. coli live in different kinds of animals ...

Ames test

... Bruce Ames . General procedure This assay is carried out using strains of bacteria , generally Escherichia coli or Salmonella that already ... mutagen to confirm that there has been no contamination of the strain. strains of bacteria are available which have been genetically modified such that ...

Ebola

... Ebola was first discovered in 1976 , and since its discovery, different strains of Ebola have caused epidemics with 50 to 90 percent mortality in the ... Sudan . Of 602 identified cases, there were 397 deaths . The two strains identified in 1976 were named Ebola–Zare (EBO–Z) and ...

Malaria

... which is recommended for travellers to affected regions. Certain strains of Plasmodium have recently developed resistance to chloroquine which ... thus complicating the treatment. In West Africa , where the local strains of malaria are particularly virulent, mefloquine (trade name Lariam ) ...

Antibiotic

... of selection is Staphylococcus aureus , which could be treated successfully with penicillin in the 1940s and 1950s. At present, nearly all strains are resistant to penicillin , and many are resistant to nafcillin , leaving only a narrow selection of drugs such as vancomycin useful for ...

Antibiotic resistance

... is because a vaccine enhances the body's natural defenses, while an antibiotic operates separately from the body's normal defenses. Nevertheless, new strains may evolve that escape immunity induced by vaccines. While theoretically promising, anti-staphylococcal vaccines have shown limited efficacy, ...

Bacterial conjugation

... Bacteria with an integrated F-plasmid do recombine unusually often, which is why they are also called Hfr- (high frequency recombination-) strains . See also biology genetics plasmid ...

Biodiversity

... contested. In recent years, however, it has become clear that there are real ecological effects of biodiversity . Unusual and wild strains of maize are collected to increase the crop diversity when selectively breeding domestic corn. Economic role of biodiversity For all ...

Eugenics

... which, especially in the case of man, takes cognisance of all influences that tend in however remote a degree to give to the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable than they otherwise would have had. The word eugenics would sufficiently ...

Hershey-Chase experiment

... collected the progeny. The results found that the progeny collected from the 32 P E.Coli and 32 P T2 contained the 32 P isotope, while the 35 S strains did not, providing more evidence that DNA was the genetic information that bacteriophages inject into bacteria , not protein . ...

Hfr cell

... plasmid (often F ) integrated into its genomic DNA. Hfr is the abbreviation for high frequency recombination . Unlike a normal F+ cell, hfr strains will, upon conjugation with a F- cell, attempt to transfer their entire DNA through the pilus to the F- cell. As fragile a structure as a pilus ...

Microevolution

... in the evolution of new species ). Typically, observable instances of evolution are examples of microevolution; for example, bacterial strains that have become resistant to antibiotics . Because microevolution can be observed directly, both pro-evolution and some anti-evolution groups ...

Antibiotic resistance

... is because a vaccine enhances the body's natural defenses, while an antibiotic operates separately from the body's normal defenses. Nevertheless, new strains may evolve that escape immunity induced by vaccines. While theoretically promising, anti-staphylococcal vaccines have shown limited efficacy, ...

Phage

... an extensive library of research into specific phages and their therapeutic uses in the Tbilisi Institute in Georgia . The development of bacterial strains that are resistant to multiple drugs has led Western medical researchers to re-evaluate phages as alternatives to the use of antibiotics. Phage ...

Physiology

... of a given animal or plant and vice-versa. Genetics is not the only factor that affects the physiology of animals and plants. Environmental strains wreak havoc on eukaryotic organisms as well. For organisms that do not dwell in aquatic habitats , water must be stored within their cellular ...

Restriction enzyme

... and genetic engineering rely on restriction enzymes. The term restriction comes from the fact that these enzymes were discovered in E. coli strains that appeared to be restricting the infection by certain bacteriophages. Restriction enzymes therefore are believed to be a mechanism evolved by ...

Shigella

... the intestinal mucosa. After invasion, they multiply intracellularly, and spread to contiguous epitheleal cells resulting in tissue destruction. Some strains produce enterotoxin and Shiga toxin (very much like the verotoxin of E. coli O157:H7 ). ...

Vaccine

... 4 Economics of vaccine development 5 See also 6 External links Types of vaccines Vaccines may be living, weakened strains of viruses or bacteria which intentionally give rise to inapparent-to-trivial infections. Vaccines may also be killed or inactivated organisms ...
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