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States in Biological Definition

Cancer

... fact that lung cancer death rates in the United states have mirrored smoking patterns, with increases ... and in 2002 the same happened in the United states 2 . Progessive and disseminated malignant ... Survival among Children and Adolescents: United states SEER Program 1975-1995, National Cancer ...

Eugenics

... second largest eugenics movement was the United states . Beginning with Connecticut in 1896 , many states enacted marriage laws with eugenic criteria, ... to justify many anti-miscegenation laws. Some states also practiced sterilization of "imbeciles" for ...

Human

... cooperating and competing groups, nations , states , and institutions , distinguished by their ... The conventional view of human evolution states that humans evolved in inland savanna ... geographical location and material interests ( states ), which are often further divided into social ...

Photon

... have energy, the theory of general relativity states that they are affected by gravity , and this is ... emission from electrons as they change energy states or orbitals . Photons can be created by nuclear ... visible light is commonly encountered in quantum states which are not "pure" photons but combinations ...

Stem cell

... of embryonic and adult stem cell research. These states include Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, ... bans on embryonic stem cell research. These states include Arkansas, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, ... Dakota, Virginia, Kansas, and Missouri, states play catch-up on stem cells (USA Today, Dec. ...

Apoptosis

... homeostasis required by living organisms to maintain their internal states within certain limits. Some authors and researchers like Steven Rose and ... slower than they die, which results in a disorder of cell loss. Both states can be fatal or highly damaging. For instance, misregulation of Hedgehog ...

Artificial life

... (although other groupings are possible): The strong alife position states that "life is a process which can be abstracted away from any particular ... automata, not requiring a physical body but based on the changing states of the cells in an infinite grid -- the first cellular automaton . It ...

Culture

... society" while a 2002 document from the United Nations agency UNESCO states that culture is the "set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual ... Switzerland United Kingdom Scotland Wales United states Contemporary local cultures Culture of New York City ...

Diabetes mellitus

... In 2002 there were about 18.2 million diabetics in the United states alone. The Centers for Disease Control has termed the change an ... Clearinghouse estimates that diabetes costs $132 billion in the United states alone every year. Causes and types The role of insulin ...

Drug

... , to relieve a symptom , to enhance performance or ability, to alter states of mind or to modify a chemical process or processes in the body. The word ... government tax revenue. Licensed distribution In the United states , medical professionals may obtain drugs from drug companies or ...

Ebola

... Kikhela , the Minister of Health in Kinshasa, then contacted the United states Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for help. The CDC informed the ... by Tom Clancy describes an extensive bioterrorist attack on the United states via a newly discovered strain of Ebola that propagates by air. See ...

Evolution

... the special creation of humans described in the Bible ). In the United states this has led to a vigorous conflict between creation and evolution in ... the majority of people hold secular beliefs. In the west, the United states of America is the only country where creationist ideas are given serious ...

Human Genome Project

... History The $3 billion project was founded in 1990 by the United states Department of Energy and the U.S. National Institutes of Health , and ... China France Germany Japan United Kingdom United states Initiation of the Project was the culmination of several years of ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... hearing on prescription drugs noted that 1 in 6 children in the United states are being prescribed an anti-depressant product. At the end of 2004, some ... of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome and over 30 deaths, prompted the United states Food and Drug Administration to ban it as an over-the-counter nutrient. ...

Structural biology

... dichroism . Most often researchers use them to study the static " native states " of macromolecules. But variations on these methods are also used to watch nascent or denatured molecules assume or reassume their native states (see e.g. protein folding ). A third approach that structural ...

Activation energy

... chemical kinetics . The transition state in a reaction is the point at which the original bonds have stretched to their limit. Transition states are only in existence for extremely brief (10 -15 s) periods of time. The energy required to reach the transition state is equal to the activation ...

Alcohol

... ether . More useful is the E1 elimination reaction of alcohols to produce alkenes . The reaction generally obeys Zaitsev's Rule , which states that the most stable (usually the most substituted) alkene is formed. Tertiary alcohols eliminate easily at just above room temperature, but primary ...

Anabolism

... Glucagon Adrenalin and other catecholamines Cytokines Newer hormones associated with the balance of the catabolic and anabolic states include Orexin and Hypocretin (a hormone pair) Melatonin See also Anabolic steroids ...

Antibiotic

... has become a serious problem in both the developed and underdeveloped nations. By 1984 half the people with active tuberculosis in the United states had a strain that resisted at least one antibiotic. In certain settings, such as hospitals and some child-care locations, the rate of antibiotic ...

Antibody

... (1 and 2), beta-globulins (1 and 2) and gamma-globulins according to weight. Immunoglobulins are all in the gamma region. In some disease states ( myeloma ) a very high concentration of one particular immunoglobulin will show up as a monoclonal band. Isotypes According to ...

Archaea

... E. (1977). Phylogenetic Structure of the Prokaryotic Domain: The Primary Kingdoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United states of America 74 (11) 5088–5090. ...

Biodiversity

... include all the countries on Earth with the exception of Andorra, Brunei Darussalam, the Holy See, Iraq, Somalia, Timor-Leste, and the United states of America. If the gene is the fundamental unit of natural selection, thus of evolution, some, like E.O. Wilson, say that the real biodiversity is ...

Barbiturate

... development of alternative medications, namely benzodiazepines . Today, less than 10 percent of all sedative/hypnotic prescriptions in the United states are for barbiturates. Other non-therapeutical use Barbiturates in high doses are used for physician-assisted suicide (PAS), and, in ...

Bioinformatics

... up-regulates and down-regulates. Expression data is also used to infer gene regulation: one might compare microarray data from a wide variety of states of an organism to form hypotheses about the genes involved in each state. In a single-cell organism, one might compare stages of the cell cycle , ...

Anabolism

... Glucagon Adrenalin and other catecholamines Cytokines Newer hormones associated with the balance of the catabolic and anabolic states include Orexin and Hypocretin (a hormone pair) Melatonin See also Anabolic steroids ...

Cladistics

... called characters, and specific versions are called character states. Thus we might say that "red feathers" and "blue feathers" are two character states of the character "feather-color." After recording many character states, the researcher then decides which ones were present before the last ...

Genetic code

... several books available online that go into great detail on this topic. They are available through the NCBI Bookshelf , maintained by the United states National Institutes of Health . In particular the following books would be useful to consult: Griffiths, Anthony J.F.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; ...

Common descent

... part of what blind destiny has ... In 1790 , Immanuel Kant (Knigsberg (Kaliningrad) 1724 - 1804), in his Kritik der Urtheilskraft , states that the analogy of animal forms implies a common original type and thus a common parent. In 1795 , Charles Darwin's grandfather, Erasmus Darwin ...

Competitive exclusion principle

... The competitive exclusion principle , sometimes referred to as Gause's Law of competitive exclusion or just Gause's Law , states that two species that compete for the exact same resources cannot stably coexist. One of the two competitors will always have an ever so slight ...

Bioinformatics

... up-regulates and down-regulates. Expression data is also used to infer gene regulation: one might compare microarray data from a wide variety of states of an organism to form hypotheses about the genes involved in each state. In a single-cell organism, one might compare stages of the cell cycle , ...

Evolutionary biology

... that a significant number of universities had departments that specifically included the term evolutionary biology in their titles. In the United states , as a result of the rapid growth of molecular and cell biology , many universities have split (or aggregated) their biology departments into ...

Ewens's sampling formula

... In population genetics , Ewens's sampling formula , introduced by Warren Ewens , states that under certain conditions (specified below), if a random sample of n gametes is taken from a population and classified according to the gene ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... in dimensions of [length 2 time -1 ] x is the position A Biological Perspective The first law gives rise to the formula It states that the rate of diffusion of a gas across a membrane is Constant for a given gas at a given temperature by an experimentally determined factor, ...

Foot and mouth disease

... including parts of Europe , Africa , Asia , and South America . While currently (July 2001) some countries, including Canada , the United states , and Australia , have been free of FMD for some time, its wide host range and rapid spread represent cause for international concern. There was an ...

Gene

... Crick demonstrated the molecular structure of DNA . Together, these discoveries established the central dogma of molecular biology , which states that proteins are transcribed from RNA which is translated from DNA. This dogma has since been shown to have exceptions, such as reverse ...

Genetic code

... several books available online that go into great detail on this topic. They are available through the NCBI Bookshelf , maintained by the United states National Institutes of Health . In particular the following books would be useful to consult: Griffiths, Anthony J.F.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; ...

Genetic fingerprinting

... was used to prove that Nazi doctor Josef Mengele was buried in Brazil as Wolfgang Gerhard. The science was made famous in the United states in 1994 when prosecutors heavily relied on and through expert witnesses exhaustively presented and explained DNA evidence allegedly linking O. J. ...

Gene regulatory network

... being present. Time is viewed as proceeding in discrete steps. At each step, the new state of a node is a boolean function of the prior states of the nodes with arrows pointing towards it. The validity of the model can be tested by comparing simulation results with time series ...

Hardy-Weinberg principle

... The Hardy–Weinberg principle ( HWP ) (also Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium ( HWE ), or Hardy–Weinberg law ) states that, under certain conditions, after one generation of random mating , the genotype frequencies at a single gene locus will become fixed at a ...

Immunology

... of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms . It deals with, among other things, the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders ( autoimmune diseases , hypersensitivities , immune ...
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