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Skin in Biological Definition

Albinism

... in a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. It is an inherited condition arising ... problems with photosensitivity in eyesight and skin usually result from the condition. This article ... in the body. Melanin helps protect the skin from ultraviolet light coming from the sun ...

Bacterium

... by bacteria, for example, prior to cutting the skin during surgery or swabbing skin with alcohol when piercing the skin with the needle of a syringe. Sterilization of ...

Cancer

... as a part of their lifecycle (in tissues such as skin or the mucous membranes of the digestive ... originate in epithelial cells , e.g. skin , digestive tract or glands . Leukemia ... kidneys , rhabdomyosarcoma - in muscles , skin cancer (including benign moles and dysplastic ...

Bacterium

... by bacteria, for example, prior to cutting the skin during surgery or swabbing skin with alcohol when piercing the skin with the needle of a syringe. Sterilization of ...

Human

... too, depending on genes and environment. Human skin color can range from very dark brown to very ... with ancestors from sunny regions have darker skin than people with ancestors from regions with ... and less sunny regions; and these people may have skin colors across the spectrum. On average, women ...

Insulin

... that tests for blood glucose levels through the skin and administers corrective doses of insulin through pores in the skin of the patient. Both electricity and ultrasound have been found to make the skin temporarily porous. The insulin administration ...

Keratin

... protein found in the outer layer of the skin of human beings and many other animals. This outer layer of skin is called the epidermis . The outermost layer of ... keratin. The keratin in these cells makes the skin tough and almost completely waterproof. In places ...

Marcello Malpighi

... Malpighi used the microscope for studies on skin , kidney , and for the first interspecies ... use lungs to breathe, but small holes in their skin called tracheae . Later he falsely concluded ... structures are named after him, including a skin layer (Malpighi layer ) and two different ...

Skin

... In zootomy and dermatology , skin is an organ of the integumentary system ; ... that protect underlying muscles and organs . skin is used for insulation , vitamin D production, sensation , and excretion (through sweat ). skin on creatures regularly subjected to sunlight ...

Thermoregulation

... and urine about 3, respiration about 20, skin (conduction, radiation and evaporation) about 77. Hence it is clear the chief means of loss are the skin and the lungs. The more air that passes in and ... when water (often from perspiration) leaves the skin surface as a gas, lowering the body temperature ...

Anatomy

... Ovary Pharynx Pancreas Penis Placenta Rectum skin Small intestine Spleen Stomach Tongue Uterus ... Genitals Head Joint Leg Mouth Neck Scalp skin Teeth Tongue Other anatomic terms (not classified): ...

Blood

... is never blue , but veins appear blue because light is diffused by skin . Moreover, the blood inside is dark red and exhibits poor light ... a physiological perspective, veins and arteries appear similar when skin is removed and are seen directly. Blood moves in blood vessels and is ...

Dialysis

... common are lignocaine(lidocaine) a local anaesthetic injected under the skin and there is also available a cream called EMLA which is applied to the skin 45 minutes before the needles are inserted). Fistulas are widely ...

Heterozygote

... carrier . If the proteins are structural, such as those that comprise skin or bone matrix, a mixture of normal or abnormal products usually produces abnormal skin or bone, and the resulting abnormality is termed a dominant trait or ...

Pigment

... is the same for all viewing angles. Nearly all types of cells, such as skin , eyes , fur and hair contain pigment. Butterfly wings typically ... Phycobilin Other Hematochrome Melanin - Which causes human skin coloration Pthalocyanine blue Urea Painting pigments ...

Semen

... Semen and transmission of disease Semen is in itself harmless on the skin or if swallowed. However, semen can be the vehicle for many sexually ... plasma and seminal lymphocytes. Note that any kind of sexual or other skin contact with the semen of a person infected with HIV should be avoided, ...

Antibiotic

... as the first successful use of an oral antibiotic. During the same era, Rene Dubos isolated tyrothricin , an antibiotic used topically for skin infections, from soil bacteria. With the increased need for treating wound infections in World War II , resources were poured into investigating ...

Antibiotic resistance

... Staphylococcus aureus (colloquially known as "Staph aureus") is one of the major resistant pathogens. Found on the mucous membranes and the skin of around a third of the population, it is extremely adaptable to antibiotic pressure. It was the first bacterium in which penicillin resistance ...

Antibody

... cells, and certain viruses "hide" inside cells for long periods of time to avoid them. This is the reason for the chronic nature of many minor skin diseases (such as cold sores ); any given outbreak is quickly suppressed by the immune system, but the infection is never truly eradicated because ...

Apoptosis

... Homeostasis In the adult organism, the number of cells within an organ or tissue has to be constant within a certain range. Blood and skin cells, for instance, are constantly renewed by their respective progenitor cells; but proliferation has to be compensated by cell death. This ...

Barr body

... This is what results in the coloration pattern of female calico cats ; pigmentation genes on the X chromosome are activated in different patches of skin based on which chromosome is condensed in those regions. The Barr body chromosome is generally considered to be inert, but in fact a small number ...

Biotechnology

... section of biotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer , milk -products, and skin ). Naturally present bacteria are utilized by the mining industry in bioleaching . Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, clean up ...

Biomechanics

... and collagen , living cells, ground substances such as proteoglycans, and the orientations of fibers within the tissue. For example, if human skin were largely composed of a protein other than collagen , many of its mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus , would be different. ...

Carolus Linnaeus

... were four subcategories. These categories, Americanus , Asiaticus , Africanus , and Europeanus were based on place of origin at first, and later skin color. Each race had certain characteristics that members supposedly had. Native Americans were reddish, stubborn, and angered easily. Africans were ...

Collagen

... protein of connective tissue . It has great tensile strength , and is the main component of ligaments and tendons . It is responsible for skin elasticity, and its degradation leads to wrinkles that accompany aging. Collagen also fills out the cornea where it is present in crystalline ...

Cytoskeleton

... Different intermediate filaments are: made of vimentins , being the common structural support of many cells. made of keratin , found in skin cells, hair and nails . Neurofilaments of neural cells. made of Lamin , giving structural support to the nuclear envelope. ...

Ebola

... fatigue, and a fever for more than 72 hours and less than three weeks. The patient also may have unexplained bleeding from the mucous membranes , skin , eyes , or gastrointestinal tract . The patient may also be going into shock (has a systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg or a ...

Endodermis

... Endodermis is the bottom layer of skin . In plants, it is a thin layer of parenchyma found in roots , just outside the vascular cylinder. It regulates the flow of water. Endodermis ...

Epidermis

... layer of cells covering the leaves and young parts of a plant is the epidermis . In vertebrates , epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin . In invertebrates , the outermost layer of cells of the organism. Etymology : 17th Century, via Late Latin from Greek , from epi- ...

Eye

... appearance once fully developed, vertebrate eyes grow outward from brain cells during embryonic development, while mollusk eyes grow inward from skin cells. How a complex structure like the eye could have evolved is often said to be a difficult question for the theory of evolution , on the basis ...

Foot and mouth disease

... susceptible animals through direct contact with infected animals or with contaminated pens or vehicles used to transport livestock. The clothes and skin of animal handlers such as farmers, standing water, and uncooked food scraps and feed supplements containing infected animal products can harbor the ...

Fungus

... immunity to fungi and most of the infections they cause are mild and self-limiting. This resistance is due to: Fatty acid content of the skin . pH of the skin, mucosal surfaces and body fluids Epithelial turnover Normal flora Transferrin Cilia of respiratory ...

Herpetology

... reptiles and amphibians, share "cold-bloodedness" but otherwise have surprisingly little else in common. Typically, amphibians have a permeable skin that assists in the exchange of gases and respiration , have a two-chambered heart like fish, and are often bound to water for at least some part ...

Homunculus

... with a golem . However, after a short time, the homunculus would turn on its creator and run away. The recipe consisted of a bag of bones, sperm, skin fragments and hair from any animal you wanted it to be a hybrid of. This was to be laid in the ground surrounded by horse manure for forty days, at ...

Immune system

... signal" as speculated by Janeway and Matzinger, respectively. Physical barrier The first defense includes barriers to infection such as skin and mucus coating of the gut and airways, physically preventing the interaction between the host and pathogen. Pathogens which penetrate these ...

Immunology

... system are thymus , spleen , bone marrow , lymph vessels , lymph nodes and secondary lymphatic tissues such as tonsils and adenoids ) and skin . The major organs, the thymus and spleen, are examined histologically only post-mortem during autopsy . However some lymph nodes, and secondary ...

Lung

... arrangement, but amphibians have low metabolic demands and also frequently supplement their oxygen supply by diffusion across the moist outer skin of their bodies. Evolutionary origins The lungs of vertebrates are closely related (i.e. homologous ) to the gas bladders of fish (but ...

Antibiotic resistance

... Staphylococcus aureus (colloquially known as "Staph aureus") is one of the major resistant pathogens. Found on the mucous membranes and the skin of around a third of the population, it is extremely adaptable to antibiotic pressure. It was the first bacterium in which penicillin resistance ...

Muscle

... . It is connected by tendons to processes of the skeleton . In contrast, smooth muscle occurs at various scales in almost every organ, from the skin (in which it controls erection of body hair) to the blood vessels and digestive tract (in which it controls the caliber of a lumen and ...

Nutrition

... seen as adversely affecting people’s health: polished rice was identified as a cause of beri-beri when people realized that removing the skin of the rice was a process which removed essential nutrients. In the late 1800s in the United States, babies started developing scurvy; there was a ...
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