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Short in Biological Definition

Bone

... the child ages (see Bone Development below). short bones (e.g. finger bones) have a similar ... appear during fetal development, though a few short bones begin their primary ossification after ... for the formation of the diaphyses of long bones, short bones and certain parts of irregular bones. ...

Chromosome

... touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3) short arm. (4) Long arm. A chromosome (in Greek ... even if they are far apart on the chromosome. The short arm of a chromosome can be extended by a ... which is caused by the deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. Victims make high-pitched ...

Chromosome walking

... the long sequence into several consecutive short ones. The basic technique is as follows: ... of the DNA to sequence is used to synthesize a short DNA strand complementary to the unknown sequence, starting with the primer (see PCR ). The new short DNA strand is sequenced using the chain ...

Leaf

... tip. mucronate: abruptly tipped with a small short point, as a continuation of the midrib; tipped ... pubescence. ciliate: marginally fringed with short hairs (cilia). ciliolate: minutely ciliate. ... with fine, minute hairs. pubescent: with soft, short and erect hairs. scabrous, scabrid: rough to ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... living organisms, the PCR process can copy only short DNA fragments, usually up to 10 kb (kb=kilo base ... the length of the primer. Primers that are too short would anneal at several positions on a long DNA ... of the two primers is common, and would anneal a short distance away from the mutation, while the other ...

Primer

... the ultimate primer for DNA synthesis is a short strand of RNA . This RNA is produced by an RNA ... The primers used for these techniques are usually short (about 20 bases), artificially synthesized DNA ... the length of the primer. Primers that are too short would anneal at several positions on a long DNA ...

Punctuated equilibrium

... appearance of new species in a geologically short time period, and the perhaps typical lack of ... (a large amount) over 70000 years (a geologically short period of time). If the average generation is 7 ... occurs in small populations during geologically short periods of time, transitions between species are ...

Botany

... using an early microscope, Robert Hooke discovered cells in cork ; a short time later in living plant tissue. The German Leonhart Fuchs , the Swiss ... David Bellamy Bellamy on Botany , ISBN 0563106662 an accessible and short introduction to various botanical subjects Roland Ennos and Elizabeth ...

Cilium

... In general, though, the term cilia is used when they are numerous, short and coordinated while flagella is used when they are relatively sparse and ... in the animal cells. The region between the basal body and axoneme is a short transition zone which is less studied. A defect in the cilium can ...

Human

... ("pertaining to mankind"). Nominal use of human (plural humans ) is short for human being , and used not to be considered good style in traditional ... was thinking , (Descartes, 1641). This argument is called the Cogito , short for Cogito ergo sum or "I think, therefore I am." Saint Augustine ...

Insulin

... consequences of insufficient glucose. This is because, at least in the short term, it is far more dangerous to have too little glucose in the blood ... best diabetic treatment with human insulin, however administered, falls short of normal glucose control in the non-diabetic. Complicating matters is ...

Konrad Lorenz

... saying that "many highly decent scientists hoped, like I did, for a short time for good from National Socialism, and many quickly turned away from ... ( 1971 ) "The Foundations of Ethology" ( 1982 ) External links short Autobiography Review of Biologists Under Hitler Konrad Lorenz ...

Origin of life

... ). Without such a proof-of-principle, explanations have tended to be short on specifics. However, some researchers are working in this field, ... world hypothesis The RNA world hypothesis, for example, suggests that short RNA molecules could have spontaneously formed that would then catalyze ...

Peptide

... break them down will experience mental illness. These peptides are quite short and are given names such as casomorphine , gluten exorphine and ... by virtue of their size. Traditionally, those peptide chains that are short enough to make synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called ...

Peptide

... break them down will experience mental illness. These peptides are quite short and are given names such as casomorphine , gluten exorphine and ... by virtue of their size. Traditionally, those peptide chains that are short enough to make synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called ...

Vestibular system

... from movements of the head is called vestibulo-ocular reflex , or short VOR . This reflex, combined with the push-pull principle described ... by the intake of large amounts of alcohol. BPPV BPPV, which is short for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo , is probably caused by pieces ...

Adaptive radiation

... of lung fish during the Devonian period , about 300 million years ago. The dynamics of adaptive radiation is such that, within a relatively short time, many species derive from a single or a few ancestor species. From this large number of genetic combinations, only a few can survive on long ...

Alcohol

... water, and of the carbon chain to resist it. Thus, methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water because the hydroxyl group wins out over the short carbon chain. Butanol , with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble because of a balance between the two trends. Alcohols of five or more ...

Alfred Russel Wallace

... that Darwin had worked on for twenty years, but had yet to publish. Darwin wrote in a letter to Charles Lyell : "he could not have made a better short abstract! Even his terms now stand as heads of my chapters!" Although Wallace had not requested that his essay be published, Charles Lyell and ...

Alpha helix

... arranged at the outside of the helix. The N-H group of amino acid (n) can establish a hydrogen bond with the C=O group of amino acid (n+4). short polypeptides usually are not able to adopt the alpha helical structure, since the entropic cost associated with the folding of the polypeptide ...

Amino acid

... properties 5 Uses of substances derived from amino acids Overview Amino acids are biochemical building blocks. They form short polymer chains called peptides or polypeptides which in turn form structures called proteins . Twenty amino acids are encoded by the ...

Apoptosis

... to IAPs, and in doing so "inhibits the inhibitors", effectively preventing them from arresting the apoptotic process. But before we go on to a short description of how SMAC is released, lets take a look at two well-studied extrinsically induced apoptotic processes: the TNF and the Fas pathways. ...

Artificial life

... smallest system that we can consider alive?" "Why is nature able to achieve an open-ended evolutionary system, while all human models seem to fall short of it?" "How can we measure evolution?" "How can we measure emergence ?" References Levy, Steven (1992). Artificial Life: A ...

Blood

... organs can cause severe internal bleeding, or hemorrhage . Circulation blockage can also create many medical conditions from ischemia in the short term to tissue necrosis and gangrene in the long term. Hemophilia is a genetic illness that causes dysfunction in one of the blood's ...

Carolus Linnaeus

... this time Linnaeus became convinced that in the stamens and pistils of flowers lay the basis for the classification of plants , and he wrote a short work on the subject that earned him the position of adjunct professor. In 1732 the Academy of Sciences at Uppsala financed his expedition to ...

Charles Darwin

... selection without a divine selector. In 1842 , the year that the family moved to Down House to escape the pressures of London, Darwin formulated a short "Pencil Sketch" of his theory and by 1844 had written a 240 page "Essay" which provided an expanded version of his early ideas on natural ....

Genetic code

... genome - is inscribed in a DNA molecule. Each functional portion of this molecule is referred to as a gene . Each gene is transcribed into a short template molecule of the related polymer RNA , which is better suited for protein synthesis. This in turn is translated , by mediation of a ...

Competitive exclusion principle

... natural ecosystems are known in which competitive exclusion seems to be violated. The best known example is the paradox of the plankton (or short plankton paradox ): All plankton species live on a very limited number of resources, primarily solar energy and minerals that are dissolved in ...

Dialysis

... dialysis, a catheter is placed in the patient's abdomen, running from the peritoneum out to the surface, near the navel . This is done as a short surgery. CAPD is typically done in the patient's home and workplace, but can be done almost anywhere; a clean area to work, a way to elevate the ...

Diffusion

... across a selectively permeable membrane . Photon diffusion When photons travel through a material with a high optical depth and a very short mean free path , their behavior is dominated by scattering and the path of any given photon's path is effectively a random walk . The behavior ...

DNA

... suspect, a process called DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting. In DNA profiling the relative lengths of sections of repetitive DNA, such as short tandom repeats and minisatellites are compared. DNA profiling was developed in 1984 English geneticist Alec Jeffries , and was first used in ...

Ecological genetics

... the related field of population genetics ) studies wild populations of organisms. Studies are often done on insects and other organisms that have short generation times, and thus evolve at fast rates. History Although work on natural populations had been done previously, it is acknowledged ...

Enhancer

... In genetics , an enhancer is a short region of DNA which can be bound with proteins (namely, the trans-acting factors, much like a set of transcription factors ) to enhance ...

Expressed sequence tag

... An expressed sequence tag or EST is a short sub-sequence of a transcribed protein -coding or non-protein coding DNA sequence . It was originally intended as a way to identify gene ...

Extinction

... Mass extinction There have been at least five mass extinctions in the history of life, in which many species have disappeared in a relatively short period of geological time. These are covered in more detail in the article on extinction events . The most recent of these, the K-T extinction 65 ...

Fitness landscape

... For example, a delivery truck with a number of destination addresses can take a large variety of different routes, but only very few will result in a short driving time. In order to use evolutionary optimization, one has to define for every possible solution s to the problem of interest (i.e., every ...

Gene

... junk DNA , and is not expressed. Cells regulate the activity of genes in part by increasing or decreasing their rate of transcription. Over the short term, this regulation occurs through the binding or unbinding of proteins, known as transcription factors , to specific non-coding DNA sequences ...

Genetic code

... genome - is inscribed in a DNA molecule. Each functional portion of this molecule is referred to as a gene . Each gene is transcribed into a short template molecule of the related polymer RNA , which is better suited for protein synthesis. This in turn is translated , by mediation of a ...

Homunculus

... as the homunculus. The creature was to have stood no more than 12 inches tall, and does the work usually associated with a golem . However, after a short time, the homunculus would turn on its creator and run away. The recipe consisted of a bag of bones, sperm, skin fragments and hair from any animal ...

Lagging strand

... strand, Pol III "reads" the DNA and adds nucleotides to it continuously. On the lagging strand, primase "reads" the DNA and adds RNA to it in short bursts. Pol III lengthens the bursts, forming Okazaki fragments . Pol I then "reads" the fragments, removes the RNA, and adds its own nucleotides ...
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