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Sequence in Biological Definition

Alternative splicing

... as a twofold information structure: A DNA sequence coding for the pre-mRNA An additional DNA code ... case, certain exons are spliced out to alter the sequence of amino acids in the expressed protein. ... genetics it means that the old idea of one DNA sequence coding for one polypeptide (the ...

Bioinformatics

... . Major research efforts in the field include sequence alignment , protein structure alignment , ... 1 Major research areas 1.1 sequence analysis 2 Computational evolutionary ... External links Major research areas sequence analysis Main articles: ...

Biopolymer

... acids . The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the ... acid terminus. The convention for a nucleic acid sequence is to list the nucleotides as they occur from ... phosphate diester linkages of the chain. Such a sequence is called the primary structure of the ...

BLAST

... to look for sequences that resemble a given sequence of interest. For example, following the discovery ... in lineage to a certain protein whose amino-acid sequence I know? Where does the DNA that I've just ... part of other algorithms that require approximate sequence matching. The BLAST algorithm and a computer ...

Chromosome walking

... sequenced, this method works by dividing the long sequence into several consecutive short ones. The basic ... primer that matches the beginning of the DNA to sequence is used to synthesize a short DNA strand ... along the sequence. The method can be used to sequence entire chromosomes (thus, chromosome walking ). ...

Genetic code

... genetic code 4.3 Phase or reading frame of a sequence 5 Origin of the genetic code 6 ... will then be folded into a protein . The gene sequence inscribed in DNA, and in RNA, is composed of ... codon combinations. For example, the RNA sequence UUUAAACCC contains the codons UUU, AAA and CCC, ...

Bioinformatics

... . Major research efforts in the field include sequence alignment , protein structure alignment , ... 1 Major research areas 1.1 sequence analysis 2 Computational evolutionary ... External links Major research areas sequence analysis Main articles: ...

DNA sequence

... A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence ) is a succession of letters representing the ... abutting one another without gaps, as in the sequence AAAGTCTGAC. This ...

DNA

... of molecular structure 4 The role of the sequence 5 DNA replication 6 Mechanical ... length of the DNA is what it's all about, the sequence itself is the description for genes; ... the next in the DNA strand. The role of the sequence Within a gene, ...

Evolution

... 1.1.1 Morphological evidence 1.1.2 Genetic sequence evidence 1.1.3 Origin of life 1.2 The ... and appendix are common examples. Genetic sequence evidence Comparison of the genetic sequence of organisms reveals that organisms that are ...

Expressed sequence tag

... An expressed sequence tag or EST is a short sub-sequence of a transcribed protein -coding or non-protein coding DNA sequence . It was originally intended as a way to ... has since been instrumental in gene discovery and sequence determination. An EST is produced by one-shot ...

Flagellum

... Many components of bacterial flagella share sequence similarity to components of the type III ... of bacterial and archaeal flagella share no sequence similarity. Instead, some components of archaeal flagella share sequence and morphological similarity with components of ...

Gene

... the growth of biotechnology and the project to sequence the human genome , the common usage of the word ... of a protein . The genetic code determines the sequence of the amino acids that make up a protein. The coding of a three nucleotide DNA sequence to a specific amino acid is essentially the same ...

Genetic code

... genetic code 4.3 Phase or reading frame of a sequence 5 Origin of the genetic code 6 ... will then be folded into a protein . The gene sequence inscribed in DNA, and in RNA, is composed of ... codon combinations. For example, the RNA sequence UUUAAACCC contains the codons UUU, AAA and CCC, ...

Genetic recombination

... by comparing the occurrence of a specific DNA sequence with the appearance of a disease. When a high ... is found, it is likely that the appropriate gene sequence is closer. Problems of crossover Crossover ... two double helices of DNA which are very close in sequence and come into contact with one another. Thus, ...

Genetics

... Sanger's lab complete the entire genome of sequence of Bacteriophage Φ-X174; . 1983 Kary ... cerevisiae is the first eukaryote genome sequence to be released 1998 The first genome sequnce ... not strictly associated with changes in the DNA sequence is called epigenetics . Some take the view ...

Genomics

... biological discoveries. If a particular DNA sequence or pattern is present among many members of a clade , that sequence is said to have been conserved among the species. Evolutionary conservation of a DNA sequence may imply that it confers a relative selective ...

Human Genome Project

... in the field of genomics (especially in sequence analysis ), as well as huge advances in computing ... upon which gaps can be closed. Each draft sequence has been checked at least four to five times to ... DNA of a specific organism. While the human DNA sequence offers the most tangible benefits, important ...

Microsatellite

... A microsatellite is a short, noncoding DNA sequence (a Tandemly Repetitive DNA sequence) that is ... same locus. In a microsatellite, the repeated sequence is very simple, consisting of two to four ... a microsatellite locus, one would expect to see a sequence of ... The number of ...

Molecular evolution

... , which allow the determination of the exact sequence of nucleotides or bases in either DNA or RNA. ... it is still a long and expensive process to sequence the entire genome of an organism, and this has ... However it is quite feasible to determine the sequence of a defined area of a particular chromosome . ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... are basic parameters of image acquisition, a sequence will take on the property of T2 weighting. On a ... tends to develop edema, which makes a T2 weighted sequence sensitive for pathology, and generally able to ... of the magnetic gradients, a T2 weighted sequence can be converted to a FLAIR (fluid light ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... is when primer design is based on protein sequence . As several different codons can code for one ... is used in a particular case. Therefore primer sequence corresponding to the amino acid isoleucine ... Mutagenesis is a way of making changes to the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA. There are situations ...

Primary structure

... to obtain either nucleotide or peptide sequence . The primary structure, in other words, is a biopolymer's exact chemical composition and to the sequence in which its subunits are arranged. While the ... ). However, knowing the structure of a similar sequence (for example a member of the same Protein family ...

Promoter

... In genetics , a promoter is a DNA sequence that enables a gene to be transcribed . The ... The perfect promoter is called a canonical sequence . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") ... the gene in the direction of transcription. The sequence at -10 is called the Pribnow box and usually ...

Protein

... as its native state , which is determined by its sequence of amino acids. Biochemists refer to four ... Primary structure : the amino acid sequence Secondary structure : highly patterned ... genetic engineering , researchers can alter the sequence and hence the structure, "targeting" , ...

Proteome

... in the genome. When the genome is defined by the sequence of nucleotides , the proteome cannot be limited ... matching the observed peptide masses against a sequence database . Tandem mass spectrometry, on the other hand, can get sequence information from individual peptides by isolating ...

Restriction enzyme

... segments that contain a particular nucleotide sequence , and it makes its incisions only within that sequence--known as a " recognition sequence "--always in the same way. Some enzymes make ... restriction enzymes, the length and the exact sequence of a sticky-end " overhang ", as well as whether ...

Sequencing

... in a symbolic linear depiction known as a sequence which succinctly summarizes much of the ... to have been devised to scale the method up to sequence genes and genome. Two of the mainstream chain ... ways. See also Genetic code sequence motif External links Information on ...

Signal transduction

... to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, ... to as " genetic programs ," one example being the sequence of events that take place when an egg is ... protein to fold in a way such that the signal sequence which enables its passage into the nucleus is ...

Biophysics

... The studies included under the umbrella of biophysics range from sequence comparison to neural networks . In the recent past, biophysics included ... relationships. Computer science - molecular simulations, sequence alignment, neural networks, databases. Mathematics - graph/network ...

Centromere

... of chromosomes. In most eukaryotes, the centromere has no defined DNA sequence . It typically consists of large arrays of repetitive DNA where the sequence within individual repeat elements is similar but not identical. In ...

Endosymbiont

... Announces and analyzes the full genome sequence of Buchnera sp. APS, the endosymbiont of the pea aphid, and the first ... H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki and H. Ishikawa (2000), Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS, ...

Endosymbiont

... Announces and analyzes the full genome sequence of Buchnera sp. APS, the endosymbiont of the pea aphid, and the first ... H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki and H. Ishikawa (2000), Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS, ...

Enzyme

... nomenclature for enzymes, the EC numbers ; each enzyme is described by a sequence of four numbers, preceded by "EC". The first number broadly classifies the ... External links ExPASy enzyme database , links to Swiss-Prot sequence data, entries in other databases and to related literature searches ...

Lambda phage

... attachment site in the bacterial genome, called att λ . The sequence of the att site is called att B and consists of the parts B-O-B', whereas the complementary sequence in the circular phage genome is called att P and consists of the parts ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... through the spontaneous mutation of a single nucleotide within the sequence of a gene. In single-celled organisms, such an event immediately ... substitutions becomes fixed, the effect is to add a substitution to the sequence of the previously fixed allele. In this way, neutral substitutions tend to ...

Primer

... use for degenerate primers is when primer design is based on protein sequence . As several different codons can code for one amino acid , it is often ... to deduce which codon is used in a particular case. Therefore primer sequence corresponding to the amino acid isoleucine might be "ATH", where A ...

Prion

... molecules, causing the fiber to grow. Small differences in the amino acid sequence of prion-forming regions lead to distinct structural features on the ... As a result, only free protein molecules that are identical in amino acid sequence to the prion protein can be recruited into the growing fiber. This ...

RNA

... strand (so called because it logically has the equivalent nucleotide sequence of the new RNA strand). A small stretch of DNA-RNA hybrid is present at the active site of the enzyme. The synthesis continues until a termination sequence is reached. The resulting RNA molecule is the primary transcript . ...

Y chromosome

... bases contain functioning genes important for male fertility. Most of the sequence pairs are greater than 99.97 percent identical. The extensive use of gene ... The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes. Nature, 423, 825-837 Rozen, S., et. al. (2003) Abundant gene ...
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