Alfred Russel Wallace
... proposal of a theory of evolution by natural selection
prompted Charles Darwin to reveal his own more ... spiritualist , and later maintained that natural selection
cannot account for mathematical, artistic, or ... appeals were not necessary and that sexual selection
could easily explain such apparently ...
... during the splicing process. The regulation and selection
of splice sites is done by ... modes of alternative splicing:
of promoters : this is the only method of ... certain sets of other exons.
of cleavage/polyadenylation sites : this is the ...
... in insects. Evolutionary theory of genetic selection
requires that as close as possible to 100% of the infecting organisms be killed off to avoid selection
of resistance; if a small subset of the ... a memory of a golden era.
Another example of selection
is Staphylococcus aureus , which could be ...
... of common descent by proposing natural selection
as a mechanism. He published this proposal in ... interest and seemed unable to grasp the idea of selection
without a divine selector. In 1842 , the year ... Asa Gray .
As Darwin worked on his Natural selection
manuscript in December 1857 , Wallace wrote to ...
... controlled by authorities. He proposed that the selection
should be performed by a fake lottery, controlled ... feelings wouldn't be hurt by awareness of selection
principles. Other instances of eugenics-like ... of Darwin's work where the mechanisms of natural selection
were potentially thwarted by human civilization ...
... living organisms from a common ancestor. Natural selection
is the principal mechanism that causes ... as well as the mechanisms through which natural selection
acts to change populations over time.
This ... . The combination of Darwin's theory of natural selection
and Mendel's theory of genetics is called the ...
... of evolution that acts in concert with natural selection
to change the characteristics of species over ...
1 Allele frequencies
2 Drift versus selection
3 Genetic drift in populations
4 See ... p , probability theory dictates that (if natural selection
is not acting) in the following generation, a ...
no migration ( gene flow ... effect , inbreeding , assortative mating , selection
, or genetic drift . Assortative mating will ... selection, however, often require a significant selection
coefficient in order to be detected which is why ...
... the two variants may both be favoured by natural selection
and become specialised to different functions. ... and be removed from the population by natural selection
(2) Alternatively, if the amino acid ... in fitness , and be favoured by natural selection
An example of an isozyme
An example of ...
Major histocompatibility complex
... diversity. Most explanations invoke balancing selection
, a broad term which identifies any kind of natural selection
in which no single allele is absolutely most fit. Frequency dependent selection
and heterozygote advantage are two types of ...
... are removed from the gene pool by natural selection
, while more favorable (or beneficial ) ones ... while building larger gene pools.
, in particular natural selection
produced by differential mortality and ....
Modern evolutionary synthesis
... of the evolution of species by natural selection
with Gregor Mendel 's theory of genetics as ... ( genes ) with the mechanism of evolution ( selection
Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") ... opinion as to what was the variation that natural selection
acted upon. The biometric school, led by Karl ...
... Alternative meaning Natural selection
(computer game) .
is the primary mechanism within the scientific ... and Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858 . Natural selection
can be subdivided into two types; ...
Neutral theory of molecular evolution
... Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection
, Kimura and most evolutionary biologists today ... the debate was not about whether or not natural selection
acts at all.
Tomoko Ohta extended the neutral ... that are affected mostly by drift or mostly by selection
depending on the effective size of a breeding ...
... of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection
, genetic drift , mutation and migration . It ... ( G 1 ) to a phenotype space ( P 1 ), where selection
takes place, and another set of laws that map ... and a controversy about the relative roles of selection
and drift continued for much of the century ...
... stalk seals for food. For the first case the selection
pressure is likely to be constant or subject to random change, in the second case the selection
pressure is likely to increase steadily as selection
for cautiousness in seals makes the average seal ...
... origins. If Darwin 's theory of natural selection
is accepted, then inherited behavioural ... granted can be explained logically by examining selection
pressures in the history of a species.
... social groups . The mechanisms responsible for selection
in groups are statistical and can be harder to ...
... particularly by proponents of artificial selection
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace provided ... on. This is the theory of evolution by natural selection
. In this model, the length of a giraffe's neck ... of the evolution of species through natural selection
has two important implications for discussions of ...
... by macrophages. This process is called positive selection
All their life T cells recognize only those ... MHC molecules .
The cells that survive positive selection
move towards the thymic medulla where at the ... diseases). This process is called negative selection
T cells go into apoptosis if they cannot ...
... evolution as a viable theory by articulating its driving force: natural selection
. ( Alfred Russell Wallace is commonly recognized as the co-discoverer of ... and the understanding of behavior in terms of the theory of natural selection
. In one sense the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin , whose ...
... (1859) The Origin of Species and (1871) The Descent of Man and selection
in Relation to Sex
Ronald Fisher (1930) The Genetical Theory of Natural selection
John Maynard Smith and Ers Szathmry (1997) The Major ...
Sewall Wright . "The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding, and selection
in evolution". In Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on ... Genetic Programming, Chapter 2
... process for evolutionary biology is that if a gene is under natural selection
, most mutations will lead to the death of the organism. When a gene is duplicated selection
may be removed from one copy and now the other gene locus is free to ...
... of genes under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection
, genetic drift , mutation and migration . It is the theory that ... which builds on population genetics, aims to predict the response to selection
given data on the phenotype and relationships of individuals. A more ...
... emphasized the importance of the interaction of genetic drift and natural selection
in determining the outcome of evolution . He analogized natural selection
to processes in animal and plant breeding, and his work on population ...
... speciation of a single or a few species to fill many ecological niches . This is an evolutionary process driven by mutation and natural selection
Adaptive radiation often occurs when a species is introduced to a new ecosystem , or when a species can survive in an environment that was ...
... of diploid individuals would be expected to carry an allele that has a frequency of 20%. However, alleles distribute randomly only in the absence of selection
and under other assumptions. When these conditions apply, a population is said to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium .
The frequencies of all ...
3.3 Phage therapy
4 See also
5 External links
Antibiotic resistance is a consequence of evolution via natural selection
. The antibiotic action is an environmental pressure; those bacteria which have a mutation allowing them to survive will live on to reproduce. They ...
... application of these laws.
"Laws and genes" is only about a century old. While the genetic approach is not new (domestication, plant traditional selection
methods), progress made in the genetic field in the past 20 years lead to the obligation to tighten laws. With the new technologies of genetic and ...
8000BC Collecting of seeds for replanting. Evidence that Babylonians , Egyptians and Romans used selective breeding ( artificial selection
) practices to improve livestock .
6000BC Brewing beer , fermenting wine , baking bread with help of yeast
4000BC Chinese made ...
... bases) severely impair the function of a protein and are thus exceedingly rare in protein-coding sequences, since they do not often survive purifying selection
Origin of the genetic code
Numerous variations of the standard genetic code are found in mitochondria , which are energy-producing ...
... of life ).
The first suggestion that all organisms may have had a common ancestor and diverged through random variation and natural selection
was made in 1745 by the French mathematician and scientist
Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698-1759) in his work Vnus physique . ...
... is found in many species of insects from the family Hymenoptera , particularly ants , bees , and wasps . It increases the significance of kin selection
, which may explain the eusociality of these sorts of insects.
Haploidisation (from the Greek ...
Evolutionary developmental biology
... for morphological diversity, since variations in the level, pattern, or timing of gene expression , may provide more variation for natural selection
to act upon, than changes in the gene product alone.
Sean B. Carroll, 2000 , "Endless forms: the evolution of gene regulation ...
Ewens's sampling formula
... to the size of the whole population, and (2) the population is in statistical equilibrium under mutation and genetic drift and the role of selection
at the locus in question is negligible, and (3) every mutant allele is novel.
This is a probability distribution on the set of all partitions of ...
... laboratory as organisms adapt to new environmental conditions. With modern microbiological tools, it is possible to pinpoint the mutations that selection
acts upon and what brought about the adaptations and to find out how exactly these mutations work. Because of the large number of generation ...
... the possibility of extinction, small populations which represent an entire species are much more vulnerable to these types of effects.
acts to propagate beneficial genetic traits and eliminate weaknesses. However, it is sometimes possible for a deleterious mutation to be spread ...
... at a young age by Charles Darwin that he ought to "read Mathematics like a house on fire," and was very much influenced by Darwin's ideas of natural selection
when they came into print.
His inquiries into the mind involved detailed recording of subjects' own explanations for whether and how their minds ...
... underlie many of the heritable characteristics seen in organisms. The influence of such variations on the trajectory of evolution through natural selection
may be as large as or larger than variation in sequences that encode proteins. Thus, though regulatory elements are often distinguished from genes ...
... population. A large gene pool indicates a large genetic diversity , which is associated with robust populations that can survive bouts of intense selection
. Meanwhile, low genetic diversity (see inbreeding and population bottlenecks ) can cause reduced fitness and an increased chance of extinction ...