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Secondary in Biological Definition

Active transport

... 1 Types 1.1 Primary 1.2 secondary 1.2.1 Counter-transport 1.2.2 ... Types There are two main types, primary and secondary . In primary transport energy is directly coupled ... a membrane, independent of any other species. secondary transport concerns the diffusion of one species ...

Alcohol

... is the simplest 'primary' alcohol. The simplest secondary alcohol is isopropanol (propan-2-ol), and a ... above alcohols are classified as primary (1), secondary (2) or tertiary (3), and common names often ... usually 2 or 3 alcohols). The formation of a secondary alcohol via the last two methods is shown: ...

Amine

... by two carbon based groups, then it is a secondary amine . If all three hydrogens are replaced with ... in that group. Primary Amine: secondary Amine: Tertiary Amine: ... Synthesis . Reactions Dissolving secondary and tertiary amines using strong acids like HI, ...

Leaf

... blades, each leaflet separated along a main or secondary vein. Palmately compound leaves have the ... twice divided: the leaflets are arranged along a secondary vein that is one of several branching off the ... is called a pinnule . The pinnules on one secondary vein are called pinna ; e.g. Albizia (silk ...

Protein

... structure : the amino acid sequence secondary structure : highly patterned ... segments of chain that assume no stable shape . secondary structures are locally defined, meaning that there can be many different secondary motifs present in one single protein molecule. ...

Secondary metabolite

... secondary metabolites , also known as natural products , ... plants are better known as a source of secondary metabolites, bacteria , fungi and many marine ... snails) are very interesting sources, too. secondary metabolites can be classified by their chemical ...

Secondary structure

... In biochemistry and structural biology , the secondary structure of a protein includes alpha helices ... spectroscopy . Nucleic acids also have secondary structure, most notably single-stranded RNA molecules. At a higher level, secondary structure generally reflects how individual ...

Spermatogenesis

... go through a meiotic division to become secondary spermatocytes , which undergo another meiotic ... 2N). Each primary spermatocyte divides into two secondary spermatocytes containing two sets of chromosomes (2 × 1N). The secondary spermatocytes then divide into two spermatids, ...

Bone

... of long bones, short bones and certain parts of irregular bones. secondary ossification occurs after birth, and forms the epiphyses of long bones and ... ossification Epiphysis the end regions of the bone; regions of secondary ossification Epiphyseal plate the thin sheet of bone marking the ...

Immunology

... are thymus , spleen , bone marrow , lymph vessels , lymph nodes and secondary lymphatic tissues such as tonsils and adenoids ) and skin . The major ... only post-mortem during autopsy . However some lymph nodes, and secondary lymphatic tissues can be surgically excised for examination while ...

Natural selection

... any circumstance where survival is determined by ecology more than by the secondary sexual characteristics, an ecological selection is taking place (this ... for mates produces sexual selection - a process which Darwin considered secondary to ecological in most species. Natural selection does not distinguish ...

Primary structure

... localized structuring, such as the formation of loops or helices (called secondary structure ). However, knowing the structure of a similar sequence (for ... See also sequencing DNA sequence protein sequencing secondary structure tertiary structure quaternary structure ...

Alpha helix

... In proteins , the α helix is a major structural motif in secondary structure . It was first postulated by Linus Pauling , Robert Corey , and Herman Branson in 1951 based on the known crystal structures of ...

Amino acid

... and are called nonstandard . Proline is the only proteinogenic amino acid whose side group is cyclic and links to the a-amino group, forming a secondary amino group. Formerly, proline was misleadingly called an imino acid . Other amino acids contained in proteins are usually formed by ...

Beta sheet

... The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet ) is a commonly occurring form of regular secondary structure in proteins , first proposed by Linus Pauling and Robert Corey in 1951 . It consists of two or more amino acid sequences within the ...

Bioinformatics

... gene that codes for it. But, the protein can only function correctly if it is folded in a very special and individual way (if it has the correct secondary , tertiary and quaternary structure). The prediction of this folding just by looking at the amino acid sequence is quite difficult. Several ...

Chloroplast

... the parts that are still present show clear similarities. It is interesting to note that in some algae, chloroplasts seem to have arisen through a secondary event of endosymbiosis, where an eukaryotic cell joined with a second eukaryotic cell containing chloroplasts, forming chloroplasts with four ...

Bioinformatics

... gene that codes for it. But, the protein can only function correctly if it is folded in a very special and individual way (if it has the correct secondary , tertiary and quaternary structure). The prediction of this folding just by looking at the amino acid sequence is quite difficult. Several ...

Diabetes mellitus

... dialysis or transplant), blindness, heart disease and limb amputation. Recent studies show that use of statins might be needed in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular complications and mortality. Ideal control of hypertension plays a pivotal role in preventing both diabetic ...

Morphogenesis

... DNA . These can be coded for by master regulatory genes and either activate or deactivate the transcription of other genes and, in turn, these secondary gene products can regulate the expression of still other genes in a regulatory cascade. Another class of molecules involved in morphogenesis are ...

Endosymbiont

... to control the human pathogen causing African sleeping sickness, which is transmitted by tsetse flies. Focuses on methods using the primary and secondary endosymbionts of the tsetse fly. Serap Aksoy, Ian Maudlin, Colin Dale, Alan S. Robinsonand and Scott L. O’Neill (2001), Prospects for control ...

Endosymbiont

... to control the human pathogen causing African sleeping sickness, which is transmitted by tsetse flies. Focuses on methods using the primary and secondary endosymbionts of the tsetse fly. Serap Aksoy, Ian Maudlin, Colin Dale, Alan S. Robinsonand and Scott L. O’Neill (2001), Prospects for control ...

Eukaryote

... likely had a single origin, not all plastid-containing groups are closely related. Instead, some eukaryotes have obtained them from others through secondary endosymbiosis or ingestion. Endosymbiotic origins have also been proposed for the nucleus and eukaryotic flagella , but this is not generally ...

Cell membrane

... or secondary. In the primary active transport, transporters that move molecules against their electrical/chemical gradient, hydrolyze ATP. In the secondary active transport, transporters use energy derived from transport of another molecule in the direction of their gradient, to move other molecules in ...

Genomics

... between the two species. Here is a list of genetic similarity to humans, with sources, where known. While these numbers come from various secondary sources, the data may have originated from measures of DNA-DNA hybridization or from direct sequence comparisons. Species Similarity ...

Helper T cell

... , interleukin-5 and interleukin-13. Memory T H cells are specific to the antigen they first encountered and can be called upon during the secondary immune response . Most T H cells have present on the cell surface the protein CD4 , which is attracted to portions of the Class II MHC molecule. ...

Liver

... inferior vena cava. In the widely used Couinaud or "French" system, the functional lobes are further divided into a total of eight segments based on secondary and tertiary branching of the blood supply. The segments corresponding to the surface anatomical lobes are as follows: Lobe Couinaud ...

Metabolism

... Glycogenesis Gluconeogenesis Porphyrin synthesis pathway HMG-CoA reductase pathway , leading to cholesterol and isoprenoids . secondary metabolism , metabolic pathways that are not essential for growth, development or reproduction, but that usually have ecological function. ...

Morphogenesis

... DNA . These can be coded for by master regulatory genes and either activate or deactivate the transcription of other genes and, in turn, these secondary gene products can regulate the expression of still other genes in a regulatory cascade. Another class of molecules involved in morphogenesis are ...

Mycology

... model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe . Many fungi produce toxins , antibiotics , and other secondary metabolites . For example, the cosmopolitian (worldwide) genus Fusarium and their toxins associated with fatal outbreaks of alimentary toxic ...

Nervous system

... Anatomy The nervous system consists basically of two types of cells : Neurons are the primary cells of the nervous system Glia are secondary cells involved in nourishment and structural support. Rapid signalling within the nervous system occurs by two primary mechanisms: Within ...

Phloem

... are transported in the phloem through sieve tube elements . Phloem is produced in phases. Primary phloem is laid down by the apical meristem . secondary phloem is laid down by the vascular cambium to the inside of the established layer(s) of phloem. ...

Photolysis

... is also a process in the atmosphere by which primary pollutants such as hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide are combined by sunlight to form secondary pollutants such as peroxyacyl nitrates . See photochemical smog . ...

Cell membrane

... or secondary. In the primary active transport, transporters that move molecules against their electrical/chemical gradient, hydrolyze ATP. In the secondary active transport, transporters use energy derived from transport of another molecule in the direction of their gradient, to move other molecules in ...

Protein biosynthesis

... protein folding and post-translational modification . During and after synthesis, polypeptide chains often fold to assume, so called, native secondary and tertiary structures . This is known as protein folding . Many proteins undergo post-translational modification . This is may include the ...

Quaternary structure

... when discussing quaternary structure of proteins and consider all assemblies of proteins as protein complexes. See also : primary structure -- secondary structure -- tertiary structure -- structural biology -- translation ...

Rudolf Steiner

... economic spheres meant education should be available to all children regardless of the ability of families to pay for it and, on the elementary and secondary level, should be provided for by private and|or state scholarships that a family could direct to the school of its choice. Steiner was a supporter ...

Skin

... into the epidermis in small amounts. Excretion: The concentration of urea is 1/130th than that of urine. Excretion by sweating is at most a secondary function to temperature regulation. Heat regulation: The skin contains sebaceous glands and smooth arrector pili muscles . Aging and ...

Spermatid

... The term spermatid refers to the haploid male germ cell that results from secondary spermatocyte division. As a result of meiosis , each spermatid contains only half of the genetic material present in the original primary ...

Structural biology

... based on the membrane topology predicted by hydrophobicity analysis . See: protein structure prediction . See also: primary structure , secondary structure , tertiary structure , quaternary structure , structural domain , structural motif , protein subunit , cooperativity , chaperonin ...
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