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Second in Biological Definition

Active transport

... or resting concentration of this important second messenger . But the ATPase exports calcium ions more slowly: only 30 per second versus 2000 per second by the exchanger. The exchanger comes into ...

Biomechanics

... relations are also needed to model a continuum. second and fourth order tensors are crucial in ... number of independent components. Commonly used second order tensors include the Cauchy stress tensor, the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the deformation ...

Eugenics

... man as a highly-evolved social species. On the second to last page of the book, though, he concluded on ... in the postwar years. The nation that had the second largest eugenics movement was the United States ... American Eugenics Society ( 1922 - 1994 ) in the second half of the 20th Century included Joseph ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... 1 History 2 Fick's First Law 3 Fick's second Law 4 A Biological Perspective 5 See ... length -3 ] x is the position Fick's second Law Fick's second Law is used in non-steady state diffusion, i.e., ...

Human

... of relative intelligence. Humans have the second highest brain-to-body-mass ratio or ... relatives of humans are chimpanzees , the second closest bonobos , the third orangutans . ... [11] ; and the Americas 30,000 years ago, with a second colonization from across the Pacific Ocean ...

Rudolf Steiner

... down by arsonists. Unwavered, work was begun on a second Goetheanum building — still under ... The most significant of these are the first and second Goetheanums. These two structures, both built in ... Transformerhaus, etc.). Construction of the second Goetheanum building began on the same site ...

Signal transduction

... are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers . Such processes take place in as ... signal transduction 5.1 Ca2+ as a second messenger 5.1.1 Activation of Ca2+ 5.1.2 Function of Ca2+ 5.2 Lipophilic second messenger molecules 5.3 Nitric oxide (NO) ...

Species

... that is the species name , not just the second term of the binomial. For example, the name of ... do not normally interbreed in the wild, and second because the fruit of the union is rarely fertile. ... it likely to remain so in the future? To take the second question first, there are several broad ...

Andrew Huxley

... of a technique of electrophysiology known as the "voltage clamp". The second critical element of their research was the so-called giant axon of ... . Huxley was a son of the writer and editor Leonard Huxley by his second wife Rosalind Bruce, and hence half-brother of Aldous Huxley and ...

Bacterium

... was based largely on this test: Gracilicutes - bacteria with a second cell membrane containing lipids , giving them Gram-negative stains ... giving them Gram-positive stains Mollicutes - bacteria with no second membrane or wall, giving them Gram-negative stains The ...

Citric acid cycle

... into carbon dioxide and water in order to generate energy. It is the second of three metabolic pathways that are involved in fuel molecule ... (6) Pyruvate, (7) Citric Acid Cycle The citric acid cycle is the second step in carbohydrate catabolism (the breakdown of sugars). Glycolysis ...

Bacterium

... was based largely on this test: Gracilicutes - bacteria with a second cell membrane containing lipids , giving them Gram-negative stains ... giving them Gram-positive stains Mollicutes - bacteria with no second membrane or wall, giving them Gram-negative stains The ...

Genetic recombination

... anneal to one strand of the double helix on the opposite chromatid. A second nick allows the unannealed strand in the second double helix to pull apart and anneal to the remaining strand in the ...

Hershey-Chase experiment

... T2 phages with radioactive 32 P-labeled DNA infected bacteria. In a second experiment, T2 phages with radioactive 35 S-labeled protein infected ... most radioactivity was found in the infected bacteria, while in the second experiment most radioactivity was found in the phage coat. These ...

Immune system

... DNA will not be damaged by the first enzyme because of the presence of the second enzyme. However, when a bacteriophage attempts to infect this bacterium, ... activation. The first recognizes antigen-antibody complexes, the second spontaneously activates on contact with pathogenic cell surfaces, the ...

Insulin

... to prove the method actually worked. Several weeks later it was clear the second run was also a success, and he helped publish their results privately in ... the next 12 days Collip worked day and night to improve the extract, and a second dose injected on the 23rd. This was completely successful, not only in not ...

Citric acid cycle

... into carbon dioxide and water in order to generate energy. It is the second of three metabolic pathways that are involved in fuel molecule ... (6) Pyruvate, (7) Citric Acid Cycle The citric acid cycle is the second step in carbohydrate catabolism (the breakdown of sugars). Glycolysis ...

Pentose phosphate pathway

... The first is the oxidative phase, in which NADPH is generated, and the second is the non-oxidative synthesis of 5 carbon sugars. The pathway is one of ... into a keto group, and in the process, NADPH is generated. The second step is the hydrolysis of 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone to ...

Photon

... at the speed of light , c , defined as equal to 299,792,458 metres per second (the metre is defined as the distance travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second , so the speed of light does not suffer any experimental uncertainty, ...

Protein biosynthesis

... binds on to the promoter, the DNA strands are beginning to unwind. The second process is known as elongation. As the RNA polymerase travels through the ... the amino acid that is attached to the first tRNA is now moved to the second tRNA, and binds to its amino acid. This translocation continues on, and a ...

Second messenger

... In biology , second messengers are low-weight diffusible molecules that are used in ... by other membrane-associated proteins . There are three basic types of second messenger molecules: Hydrophobic molecules like diacylglycerol ...

Alcohol

... the etymology "alcohol" = "the devil" was used in the 1930s by the U.S. Temperance Movement for propaganda purposes.) According to the second theory, the popular etymology and the spelling "alcohol" would not be due to generalization of the meaning of ALKHL , but rather to Western ...

Antibiotic resistance

... that patterns of antibiotic usage greatly affect the number of resistant organisms which develop. Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics , such as second and third generation cephalosporins , greatly hastens the development of methicillin resistance, even in organisms that have never been exposed to ...

B cell

... formed specific to the antigen(s) encountered during the primary immune response; able to live for a long time, these cells can respond quickly upon second exposure to the antigen for which they are specific. Humoral immunity (the creation of antibodies that circulate in blood plasma and lymph ) ...

Biology

... four broad groupings here. The first broad group consists of disciplines that study the basic structures of living systems: cells , genes etc., a second grouping considers the operation of these structures at the level of tissues, organs and bodies; a third grouping considers organisms and their ...

Cancer

... to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in high-risk women by about 50%. Cis-retinoic acid also has been shown to reduce risk of second primary tumors among patients with primary head and neck cancer . Finasteride , a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor , has been shown to lower the risk of ...

Carolus Linnaeus

... taxa in ways that personally struck him as common-sensical; for example, human beings are Homo sapiens (see sapience ), but he also described a second human species, Homo troglodytes ("cave-dwelling man", by which he meant the chimpanzee currently most often placed in a different genus as ...

Cell growth

... process of cell reproduction has three major parts. The first part of cell reproduction involves the replication of the parental cell's DNA . The second major issue is the separation of the duplicated DNA into two equally sized groups of chromosomess . The third major aspect of cell reproduction is ...

Charles Darwin

... of professor Alexander Munro III and his revulsion at the brutality of surgery at the time led him to neglect his medical studies, but in his second year he became active in student societies for naturalists. In the Plinian society he became an avid student of Robert Edmund Grant , learning from ...

Chloroplast

... to note that in some algae, chloroplasts seem to have arisen through a secondary event of endosymbiosis, where an eukaryotic cell joined with a second eukaryotic cell containing chloroplasts, forming chloroplasts with four membrane layers. The fluid within the chloroplast is called the stroma , ...

Chromosome

... or trisomy 21 . Symptoms are decreased muscle tone, asymmetrical skull, slanting eyes and mental retardation. Edward's syndrome is the second most common trisomy after Down's Syndrome. It is a trisomy of chromosome 18. Symptoms include mental and motor retardation. Patau Syndrome , ...

Cloning

... cloning a gene , or cloning an organism . Cloning a gene means to extract a gene from one organism (for example by PCR) and insert it into a second organism (usually via a vector ), where it can be used and studied. Cloning a gene sometimes can refer to success in identifying a gene associated ...

Genetic code

... by your starting position. For example, the string GGGAAACCC, if read from the first position, contains the codons GGG, AAA and CCC. If read from the second position, it contains the codons GGA and AAC (partial codons being ignored). If read starting from the third position, GAA and ACC. Every DNA ...

Competitive exclusion principle

... cannot stably coexist. One of the two competitors will always have an ever so slight advantage over the other that leads to extinction of the second competitor in the long run. The competitive exclusion principle is a theoretical concept that follows from abstract mathematical modeling . The ...

Culture

... traits. For example, men and women have complementary roles in many cultures. One sex might desire changes that affect the other, as happened in the second half of the 20th century in western cultures. Cultural change can be caused by the environment, inventions and other internal influences, and ...

Cytoplasm

... depending on the milieu's conditions and the activity phases of the cell. In the first case, it is named cytogel and is a viscid solid mass. In the second case, called cytosol , is a liquid in movement. In general, margin regions of the cell are gel-like and the cell's interior is liquid. The ...

Developmental biology

... of development 2 Developmental model organisms 3 See also 4 External links Molecular mechanisms of development During the second half of the 20th century the types of molecules involved in embryonic development were identified. Transcription factors are the key regulators of ...

Dialysis

... and is hung from an IV stand or other elevated location, such as a coat hook. The tubing attached to the bag of fluid is uncoiled, and the second (empty) bag is placed on the floor. The Y-shaped connector is attached to the catheter tip; a protective cap must be removed from both of these ...

Ploidy

... female is diploid. In such species, the male develops from unfertilized eggs, while the female develops from fertilized eggs: the sperm provides a second set of chromosomes when it fertilizes the egg. Haplodiploidy is found in many species of insects from the family Hymenoptera , particularly ants ...

Diffusion

... Nitric oxide Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Osmosis Osmotic Quorum sensing Respiration Reverse osmosis second messenger Semipermeable membrane SI derived unit Sintering Synapse Transport phenomena External links Some ...
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