... and chemical experiments, computer simulations, and purely theoretical endeavors. Processes occurring on molecular, social, and evolutionary scales
are subject to investigation. The ultimate goal is to extract the logical form of living systems.
Microelectronic technology and genetic ...
... encompasses a broad spectrum of academic fields that are often viewed as independent disciplines. Together, they study life over a wide range of scales
Life is studied at the atomic and molecular scale in molecular biology , biochemistry , and molecular genetics . At the level of the ...
... as continuous media. For example, at the tissue level, the arterial wall can be modeled as a continuum . This assumption breaks down when the length scales
of interest approach the order of the microstructural details of the material. The basic postulates of continuum mechanics are conservation of linear ...
... eggs or birth of young. Their skins have many glands and are often toxic. Reptiles, by contrast, have a dry watertight skin, usually protected by scales
, that normally has few if any glands. The reptilian heart is a three-chambered one (four-chambered in the case of crocodilians), and living ...
... extension of the living being, such as a cell membrane .)
Stars could be considered living beings (with an extraordinary life span and size scales
compared to other known life forms).
male mules are not alive as they are sterile and cannot reproduce.
viruses are not alive as they do ...
... Macroecology is the subfield of ecology which deals with the study of relationships between organisms and their environment at large spatial scales
to characterise and explain statistical patterns of abundance, distribution and diversity. The term was coined by James Brown of the University ...
... functions have evolved .
Fish anatomy includes two chamber heart , operculum , secretory cells that produce mucous , swim bladder , scales
, fins , gills , lips and eyes .
Fish breathe under water by extracting oxygen from sea water through their gills.
Fins are used to propel and ...
... of which include the biceps brachii . It is connected by tendons to processes of the skeleton . In contrast, smooth muscle occurs at various scales
in almost every organ, from the skin (in which it controls erection of body hair) to the blood vessels and digestive tract (in which it ...
... them. Recent developments in using DNA to identify separate species and to investigate the relationship between groups at various taxonomic scales
has been enormously useful to parasitologists, as many parasites are highly degenerate , disguising relationships between species.