... Life is studied at the atomic and molecular scale
in molecular biology , biochemistry , and ... of an individual organism.
Moving up the scale
towards more than one organism, genetics ... , and systematics considers the multi-species scale
of lineages . Interdependent populations and ...
Computed axial tomography
... to the mean attenuation of the tissue that it corresponds to on a scale
from −1024 to +3071 on the Hounsfield scale
. Water has an attenuation of 0 Hounsfield units (HU) while air is ...
... for male and female .
Linnaeus was instrumental in the development of the Celsius (then called Centigrade ) temperature scale, inverting the scale
that Anders Celsius had proposed with 0 as the boiling point of water, and 100 as the freezing point.
His picture can be found on the current ...
... stem cells reproduce, double in size, then reproduce again. Most Cytosolic contents such as the endomembrane system and the cytoplasm easily scale
to larger sizes in larger cells. If a cell becomes too large, the normal cellular amount of DNA may not be adequate to keep the cell supplied with ...
... accumulation of many mutations of small effect. However, macromutation is an alternative process for adaption which involves a single, very large scale
Differential survival of traits
While mutation can create new alleles , other factors influence the frequency of existing alleles. ...
... and molecular biology, and director of the Glycobiology Research and Training Center at the University of California, San Diego has illustrated the scale
of the glycome challenge by claiming that the glycome is:
... thousands of times as complicated as the genome, in magnitude of ...
... of force as being derived from potential energy.
A graph of a 1D or 2D potential function with the function value scale
increasing upward is useful to visualize the potential field: a ball rolling to the lowest part corresponds to a mass or charge, etc. being ....
... cycle and in different environmental conditions.
The entirety of proteins in existence in an organism throughout its life cycle, or on a smaller scale
the entirety of proteins found in a particular cell type under a particular type of stimulation, are referred to as the proteome of the organism ...
... be used to identify fairly short sequences at a time (around 300-1000 base pairs on ABI machine), and therefore strategies to have been devised to scale
the method up to sequence genes and genome. Two of the mainstream chain termination strategies are chromosome walking and shotgun sequencing .
The studies that need to be undertaken by systems biology researchers cross
several academic disciplines. At one end of the scale
is medicine , which is
connected via mathematics and computer science on one side and the biological sciences on the other to biochemistry and ...
... animals lies in the constancy of the temperature of the former, and the variability of the temperature of the latter. Those animals high in the scale
of evolution, as birds and mammals, have a high temperature almost constant and independent of that of the surrounding air, whereas among the lower ...
... conversion. It is the non-reciprocal transfer of genetic information from one DNA molecule to another. It has been previously observed on a small scale
over long evolutionary timescales between repeated sequences on the same chromosome, but not at the dramatic frequency apparently employed by the Y ...