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Reverse in Biological Definition

Genetic code

... 2 Table 1: RNA Codon table 3 Table 2: reverse codon table 4 Technical details 4.1 ... in translation. These are called forward and reverse codon tables, respectively. For example, the ... start codon for prokaryotes only. Table 2: reverse codon table This table shows the 20 amino ...

Diabetes mellitus

... cells. Lowered insulin levels result in the reverse conversion of glycogen to glucose when glucose ... (especially sodium and potassium) Insulin to reverse the ketosis and lower the glucose Careful ... step further and managed to show that they could reverse the induced diabetes in dogs by giving them an ...

Diffusion

... 2.7 Osmosis 2.8 Photon diffusion 2.9 reverse diffusion 2.10 Thermal diffusion 3 See ... can be described with a diffusion equation. reverse diffusion In general, diffusion results in ... of higher concentration. This is referred to as reverse diffusion. Thermal diffusion When heat ...

Genetic code

... 2 Table 1: RNA Codon table 3 Table 2: reverse codon table 4 Technical details 4.1 ... in translation. These are called forward and reverse codon tables, respectively. For example, the ... start codon for prokaryotes only. Table 2: reverse codon table This table shows the 20 amino ...

Molecular genetics

... 1 Forward genetics 2 reverse genetics 3 Related topics 4 external ... gene can be molecularly identified. reverse genetics Main article: reverse genetics While forward genetic screens are ...

Osmosis

... Chemical potential 4 Osmotic pressure 5 reverse osmosis 6 See also Explanation ... expression for osmotic pressure: reverse osmosis The osmosis process can be driven in reverse with solvent moving from a region of high solute ...

Reverse genetics

... reverse genetics is an approach to discovering the ... , or in forward genetics. Classical and reverse genetics are alike in that, by either approach, ... phenotype, rather than the starting point, is in reverse genetics the end point. An alternative used in ...

Retrovirus

... plus sense RNA molecules. It relies on reverse transcriptase to perform a kind of reverse transcription of its genome from RNA into ... a storage form for its nucleic acid genome; the reverse transcription takes place in the host's cytosol ....

Gene

... On the other hand, RNA retroviruses , such as AIDS , require the reverse transcription of their genome from RNA into DNA before their proteins can ... from DNA. This dogma has since been shown to have exceptions, such as reverse transcription in retroviruses . See also Genetics , Gene ...

Gene therapy

... cell. The process of producing a DNA copy from an RNA molecule is termed reverse transcription . It is carried out by one of the enzymes carried in the virus, called reverse transcriptase . After this DNA copy is produced and is free in the ...

Redox

... oxidant will have been reduced . This does not mean however, that the reverse process takes place (because that would lead to status quo), but it does ... into sugars and the oxidation of water into molecular oxygen . The reverse reaction, respiration , oxidises/oxidizes sugars to produce carbon ...

Redox

... oxidant will have been reduced . This does not mean however, that the reverse process takes place (because that would lead to status quo), but it does ... into sugars and the oxidation of water into molecular oxygen . The reverse reaction, respiration , oxidises/oxidizes sugars to produce carbon ...

Virus classification

... - (-)ssRNA viruses (negative single-stranded RNA) 2.3 DNA and RNA reverse Transcribing viruses 2.3.1 Group VI - ssRNA-RT viruses (single ... type species: Lettuce big-vein associated virus DNA and RNA reverse Transcribing viruses Group VI - ssRNA-RT viruses (single stranded ...

Brain

... brains with machines The activity of a brain can be detected by electrodes, raising the possibility of "brain-computer interface" . The reverse path has also been demonstrated; brain implants have been used to generate artificial hearing and (crude and experimental) artificial vision for ...

Citric acid cycle

... an amphibolic pathway because it participates in both catabolism and anabolism . See also Glycolysis Oxidative phosphorylation reverse (reductive) Krebs cycle External links An animation of the citric acid cycle A more detailed tutorial animation ...

Classical genetics

... with the mechanistic understanding brought by molecular discoveries, but many remain intact and in use. Classical genetics is often contrasted with reverse genetics , and aspects of molecular biology are sometimes referred to as molecular genetics . See also : Genetic linkage ...

Cloning

... longer life spans than normal cows (but many have died young after excessive growth). Researchers think that this could eventually be developed to reverse aging in humans. Human cloning Main article: Human cloning Human cloning is a subject of great controversy regarding its ethical and ...

Enzyme

... a phosphate group from an amino acid residue of a protein Restriction enzymes : those enzymes which cut DNA or RNA at specific locations reverse transcriptase : used by retroviruses to transcribe information from RNA into DNA Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase : fixes carbon in green ...

Equilibrium

... not be stable. Some specific examples are: Chemical equilibrium , the state in which a chemical reaction proceeds at the same rate as its reverse reaction, resulting in no net change in the amount of each compound . Mechanical equilibrium , also known as static equilibrium , the state of ...

Flagellum

... Amphitrichous bacteria have a single flagellum each on two opposite ends (only one end's flagellum operates at a time, allowing the bacteria to reverse course rapidly by switching which flagellum is active). Peritrichous bacteria have flagella projecting in all directions. Some species of bacteria ...

Hepadnaviridae

... DNA . They have a peculiar mode of replication, because they replicate through an RNA intermediate (which they translate back into DNA using reverse transcriptase ). Because of this mode of replication, Hepadnaviruses are classified as RNA viruses . ...

Hepatitis B

... an icosahedral nucleocapsid (core) enclosing a circular, double-stranded DNA genome. The virus is unique amongst the DNA viruses in that it uses a reverse transcriptase to generate the genomic DNA to deliver to its progeny. Additionally, the DNA genome is incomplete on one strand. Hepatitis D ...

Homeostasis

... are two main types of feedback to which the system reacts: Negative feedback is a reaction in which the system responds in such a way as to reverse the direction of change. Since this tends to keep things constant, it allows the maintenance of homeostasis. For instance, when the concentration ...

Hydrolytic enzyme

... hydrolysis ( hydro-,"water";lysis-,"break" ) a water molecule is added to the polymer and cleaves the covalent bond holding the two monomers. The reverse of a hydrolysis reaction is a condensation reaction . ...

Insulin

... increased fatty acid synthesis – insulin forces fat cells to take in glucose which is converted to fatty acids; lack of insulin causes the reverse increased esterification of fatty acids – forces adipose tissue to make fats (ie, triglycerides) from fatty acid esters; lack of insulin ...

Citric acid cycle

... an amphibolic pathway because it participates in both catabolism and anabolism . See also Glycolysis Oxidative phosphorylation reverse (reductive) Krebs cycle External links An animation of the citric acid cycle A more detailed tutorial animation ...

Lytic cycle

... itself into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that are then used to direct the ribosome. In retroviruses , or RNA viruses, a unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase transcribes the viral RNA into DNA, which is then transcribed again into mRNA. Replication and lysis After many virus copies ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... protein, and those strands of RNA that hold the instructions for protein sequence are known as messenger RNA (mRNA). Once RNA is isolated it can be reverse transcribed back into DNA (complementary DNA to be precise, known as cDNA), at which point traditional PCR can be applied to amplify the gene, this ...

Proteomics

... magnetic resonance are used to characterize the three-dimensional structure of peptides and proteins . Tandem mass spectrometry combined with reverse phase chromatography or 2-D electrophoresis is used to identify and quantify all the levels of proteins found in cells. Affinity chromatography ...

Reduction

... , reduction is the process of thickening a liquid mixture such as a sauce by evaporation . In chemistry , reduction is the reverse of oxidation, i.e. the formal oxidation state of an atom (independent or within a molecule ) is reduced by the addition of electrons . A ...

Thermoregulation

... day. They then made observations on the temperature of animals and birds of nocturnal habit, where the periods of rest and activity are naturally the reverse of the ordinary through habit and not from outside interference. They found that in nocturnal birds the temperature is highest during the natural ...

Virus

... a template to make hundreds of duplicates of the original RNA. A second group of RNA-containing viruses, called the retroviruses , uses the enzyme reverse transcriptase to synthesize a complementary strand of DNA so that the virus's genetic information is contained in a molecule of DNA rather than RNA. ...

Xylem

... root pressure can only lift water a couple of feet. By far the most important cause of xylem sap flow is transpirational pull . This is the reverse of root pressure, caused by the transpiration of water from leaves. In larger plants such as trees, the root pressure and transpirational pull ...
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