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Replication in Biological Definition

Cell growth

... The first part of cell reproduction involves the replication of the parental cell's DNA . The second major ... For details see the individual articles on DNA replication , binary fission , mitosis , meiosis , and ... of the cell reproduction process. Prior to DNA replication , the DNA content of a cell can be represented as ...

Chromosome

... be accessed for transcription , regulation, and replication . Chromosomes were first observed by Karl ... are special structures called telomeres . DNA replication begins at many different locations on the ... into account. Bacterial chromosomes initiate replication and one origin of replication. Chromatin ...

DNA

... DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) is a nucleic ... 4 The role of the sequence 5 DNA replication 6 Mechanical properties relevant to biology ... itself is the description for genes; replication is performed by splitting (unzipping) the double ...

Lagging strand

... In DNA replication , the lagging strand is the DNA strand at the opposite side of the replication fork from the leading strand . It goes from 5' ... two "prongs" which resemble a fork (i.e. the " replication fork "). DNA has a ladder-like structure; imagine ...

Replication

... In biology , replication is the act or ability to make a copy. (Mostly ... pattern) making a copy of itself. DNA replication is the act of copying the genetic material of a ... to perform that replication. Semiconservative replication is the particular mechanism of DNA replication, ...

Virus

... 4 Viral size, structure and, anatomy 5 Viral replication 5.1 Steps associated with viral ... molecules. Like DNA, viruses undergo molecular replication and they can often be crystallized . Because viruses are dependent on host cells for their replication they are generally not classified as "living". ...

Fitness landscape

... replicatory success. It is assumed that every genotype has a well defined replication rate (often referred to as fitness ). The set of all possible genotypes ... by deep valleys is called rugged. If all genotypes have the same replication rate, on the other hand, a fitness landscape is said to be flat. An ...

Gene

... Types of genes Due to rare, spontaneous errors (e.g. in DNA replication ) mutations in the sequence of a gene may arise. Once propagated to the ... simply attribute it to variations within a gene. Errors during DNA replication may lead to the duplication of a gene, which may diverge over time. ...

Genetic recombination

... over of two chromosomes occurs during meiosis . After chromosomal replication , the four available chromatids are in tight formation with one another. ... information. Immediately after replication, the tetrad formed by replication contains two pairs of two identical chromatids; after crossing over, each ...

Lytic cycle

... 1 Description 1.1 Infection 1.2 Growth 1.3 replication and lysis Description The lytic cycle is a three-stage ... the viral RNA into DNA, which is then transcribed again into mRNA. replication and lysis After many virus copies are made, they are assembled into ...

Microsatellite

... frequency of loss or insertion of additional repeats by confusing the DNA replication machinery. Self-complementary sequences may aid this process. In tumour cells, where controls on replication may be damaged, microsatellites may be gained or lost at an especially ...

Mitosis

... the process of chromosome segregation and nuclear division that follows replication of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. This process assures that ... Endomitosis Endomitosis is a process that occurs when chromosomal replication takes place without nuclear or cellular division, resulting in cells with ...

Origin of life

... complex organic molecules arising gradually on a pre-existing, non-organic replication platform - silicate crystals in solution. Complexity in companion ... pressures on types of clay crystal is then exapted to serve the replication of organic molecules independently of their silicate "launch stage". ...

Plasmid

... plasmid contains at least one DNA sequence that serves as an origin of replication or ori (a starting point for DNA replication ), which enables the plasmid DNA to be duplicated independently from the ...

Primer

... strand (or related molecule) that serves as a starting point for DNA replication . A primer is required because most DNA polymerases ( enzymes that catalyze the replication of DNA ) cannot begin synthesizing a new DNA strand from scratch, but can ...

Mitosis

... the process of chromosome segregation and nuclear division that follows replication of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. This process assures that ... Endomitosis Endomitosis is a process that occurs when chromosomal replication takes place without nuclear or cellular division, resulting in cells with ...

Bacterial conjugation

... itself into the bacterial chromosome by genetic recombination ) of about 100 kb (kilo base pairs ) length. It carries its own origin of replication , called oriV . There can only be one copy of the F-plasmid in a bacterium (which is then called F-positive ), either free or integrated. Among ...

DNA virus

... and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. Viruses that either have RNA as their genetic material or use an RNA intermediate during replication are called RNA viruses . The DNA can either be single- (ssDNA) or double-stranded (dsDNA), the latter being more common. Single-stranded DNA is ...

Ebola

... Botanical Congress that a fruit extract of Garcinia kola, a West African tree long used by local traditional healers, stopped ebola virus replication in lab tests. Prevention Although there is no specific treatment for patients with Ebola, there have been entire books written about how to ...

Gene duplication

... Gene duplication occurs when an error in DNA replication leads to the duplication of a region of DNA containing a (generally functional) gene . The significance of this process for evolutionary biology ...

Growth curve

... conventional anticancer drugs have on the cancer cells . Many conventional anticancer drugs (for example, 5-Fluoro Uracil ) interfere with DNA replication and can cause the death of cells that attempt to replicate their DNA and divide. A rapidly growing tumor will have more actively dividing cells and ...

Insulin

... of insulin on the global human metabolism level include: cellular intake of certain substances, most prominently glucose increase of DNA replication and protein synthesis modification of the activity of numerous enzymes ( allosteric effect ) The actions of insulin on cells include: ...

Meiosis

... to that found at mitosis . Uncoiling, lengthening and disappearance of the chromosomes occur as well as the disappearance of the fibres and the replication of the centrioles. Nuclear envelopes reform; cleavage or cell wall formation eventually produces a total of four daughter cells, each with an haploid ...

Molecular evolution

... or disadvantage to the individual that inherits them. Answering such questions is an aim of population genetics . Rare spontaneous errors in DNA replication cause the mutations that drive molecular evolution. The molecular clock technique, which researchers use to date when two species diverged by ...

Modern evolutionary synthesis

... in the 1930s and 1940s , genetic variation in populations arises by chance through mutation (this is now known to be due to mistakes in DNA replication ) and recombination (crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meiosis ). Evolution consists primarily of changes in the frequencies of ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... as individuals with mutations are born. This latter rate, it has been argued, is predictable from the error rate of the enzymes that carry out DNA replication --enzymes that have been well studied and are highly conserved across all species. Thus, the neutral theory is the foundation of the molecular ...

Okazaki fragment

... An Okazaki fragment is a relatively short fragment of DNA that is created by primase and Pol III along the lagging strand (see DNA replication ). They are later removed by RNAse H , and the last ribonucleotide is removed by and synthesized by Pol I . The nick, or a broken phosphodiester ...

Prion

... only" model for prion disease. Although the identity and general properties of prions are now well-understood, the mechanism of prion infection and replication remains mysterious. One idea (the "Protein X" hypothesis) is that an as-yet unidentified cellular enzyme (Protein X) catalyzes the conversion of PrP ...

Virology

... Virology is the study of viruses and their properties. Properties include: Viral replication Viral pathogenesis Viral immunology Viral vaccines Diagnostic methods Antiviral chemotherapy Infection control measures ...

Virus evolution

... . Many viruses , in particular RNA viruses , have fairly high mutation rates (on the order of one point mutation or more per genome per round of replication in RNA viruses) and short generation times. As a consequence, many viruses can adapt to changes in their environment within months. Virus evolution ...
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