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Release in Biological Definition

Apoptosis

... a feed-back loop that spirals into increasing release of pro-apoptotic factors from mitochondria (see ... make the mitchondrial membrane permeable for the release of caspase activators. Just how BAX and BAK are ... have a pore-forming domain. This results in the release of caspase activators, namely cytochrome c [11] ...

Digestion

... stimulates exocrine glands in the mouth to release digestive enzymes such as salivary amylase , ... carbohydrates . Chewing also causes the release of saliva , which helps condense food into a ... (CCK) - is in the duodenum and stimulates the release of digestive enzymes in the pancreas and ...

Insulin

... An increased calcium level in the cells causes release of previously synthetised insulin, which has been ... ( CREB ). This is the main mechanism for release of insulin and regulation of insulin synthesis. In addition some insulin synthesis and release takes place generally at food intake, not just ...

Signal transduction

... can store prehormones , and quickly modify and release them if necessary. Also, the recipient cell can ... in the cytosol near the receptor will cause it to release even more Ca 2+ . It is especially important in ... of processes, among them muscle contraction, release of neurotransmitter from nerve endings, vision ...

Synapse

... Signalling across chemical synapses The release of neurotransmitter is triggered by the arrival ... point the vesicles fuse with the membrane and release their contents to the outside. Receptors on the ... Following fusion of the synaptic vesicles and release of transmitter molecules into the synaptic cleft, ...

Cytotoxic T cell

... and tumor cells. Once activated by a MHC-antigen complex, T C cells release the protein perforin , which forms pores in the target cell's plasma ... into the target cell, making it expand and eventually lyse . T C also release granzyme , a serine protease , that can enter target cells via the ...

Human Genome Project

... available to the public, 24 hours a day. However, Celera later decided to release its findings to the public after President Clinton announced that that the ... they agreed to pool their data. On April 14 , 2003 , a joint press release announced that the project had been successfully completed, with 99% of ...

Neuron

... neurotransmitter molecules . Pre-synaptic neurons (i.e.the neurons which release the neurotransmitter) may produce in the post-synaptic neurons (i.e. the ... axon. Arrival of an action potential at the tip of an axon triggers the release of neurotransmitter at a synaptic gap . Neurotransmitters can either ...

Activation energy

... move apart again with original bonds reforming, or the bonds break and new products form. This is possible because both possibilities result in the release of energy (shown on the enthalpy profile diagram, Fig. 1 , as both positions lie below the transition state). A substance that modifies the ...

Amine

... and the lone electron pairs. Also, a halogenoalkane can react with an amine to form a corresponding alkyl-substituted amine, with the release of a halogen acid. If the reacting amine is a tertiary amine in such a reaction, then a positive quaternary ammonium cation will be formed ...

Bone

... is the process of resorption followed by replacement of bone with little change in shape and occurs throughout a person's life. Its purpose is the release of calcium and the repair of micro-damaged bones (from everyday stress). Repeated stress results in the bone thickening at the points of maximum ...

Capacitation

... from the epididymis . Non-mammalian spermatozoa do not require this capacitation step and are ready to fertilize an oocyte immediately after release from the male. Historically, the term "capacitation" has evolved in meaning and this should be taken into account when consulting sources. See ...

Cell biology

... of cells and their parts Purification of cells and their parts is achieved in the following ways: Cell fractionation Flow cytometry release of cellular organelles by disruption of cells. Separation of different organelles by centrifugation . Proteins extracted from membranes by ...

Citric acid cycle

... currency" of the cell), NADH and FADH 2 . NADH and FADH 2 are coenzymes (molecules that enable or enhance enzymes) that store energy and can release it when needed. Major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle Figure 2: Schematic drawing of the major metabolic pathways ...

Diabetes mellitus

... and glycogenolysis . Fat in adipose tissue is reduced to triglycerides and fatty acids by lipolysis . Muscle is degraded to release amino acids for gluconeogenesis. The rise of fatty acid levels is accompanied by a rise of ketones ( acetone , acetoacetate and ...

Enzyme

... more highly concentrated. However, enzymes provide a means to make such a reaction much less reversible, by coupling the reaction to one with a large release of energy. This is analogous to an object sliding freely on a flat surface; the object may be pulled in one direction by attaching it to a rope ...

Gene

... Nomenclature Database Recount slashes number of human genes (from New Scientist magazine) National Human Genome Research Institute - News release Nature - 21 October 2004 - Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome ...

Golgi apparatus

... a diversity of carbohydrate structures on the proteins. After they have been secreted in to the cell the vesicles fuse to the cell membrane and release their contents. As well as protein modification, Golgi apparatus is involved in the transport of lipids around the cell as well creating ...

Hormone

... fleeing, mating) or phase of life (e.g. puberty, caring for offspring, menopause). In many cases, one hormone may regulate the production and release of other hormones. Many of the responses to hormone signals can be described as serving to regulate metabolic activity of an organ or tissue. ...

Immune system

... (T C cells) recognize infected cells by using T-cell receptors to probe the surface of other cells. If they recognize an infected cell, they release granzymes to signal that cell to become apoptotic ("commit suicide"), thus killing that cell and any viruses it is in the process of creating. ...

Infertility

... for infertility, depending what the problem is. These treatments include: Fertility medication which stimulates the ovaries to "ripen" and release eggs (e.g. clomifene citrate , which stimulates ovulation) Surgery to restore patency of obstructed fallopian tubes Donor insemination which ...

Ion channel

... include the sodium and potassium voltage-gated channels of nerve and muscle, and the voltage-gated calcium channels that control neurotransmitter release in pre-synaptic endings . Ligand-gated channels open in response to a specific ligand molecule on the external face of the membrane in which ...

Isozyme

... for glucose (compared to other hexokinases), allows it to serve different functions in cells of specific organs, such as control of insulin release by the beta cells of the pancreas , or initiation of glycogen synthesis by liver cells. Both of these processes must only occur when glucose ...

Citric acid cycle

... currency" of the cell), NADH and FADH 2 . NADH and FADH 2 are coenzymes (molecules that enable or enhance enzymes) that store energy and can release it when needed. Major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle Figure 2: Schematic drawing of the major metabolic pathways ...

Lichen

... of algal cells surrounded by fungal filaments that form in cavities called soralia, which open when the lichen dries or surrounding tissues die and release the soredia to be dispersed by wind. Another form of diaspore are isidia, elongated outgrowths from the thallus that break off for dispersal. ...

Malaria

... which reduces infection risk by 30% and severity of infections by over 50% [1] . Further necessary research will delay this vaccine from commercial release until around 2010 . In January 2005 , Edinburgh University scientists announced the discovery of an antibody which protects against the disease. ...

Neurotransmitter

... channels to open. Calcium then stimulates the transport of vesicles to the synaptic membrane: the vesicle and cell membrane fuse, leading to the release of the packaged neurotransmitter, a mechanism called exocytosis . The neurotransmitters then diffuse across the synaptic cleft to bind to ...

Origin of life

... Cairns Smith illustration of a possible solution using crystalline behaviors of clays Model of origin of life involving zeolite, press release for PNAS paper The Birth of Complex Cells, and the oxygen holocaust — by Christian de Duve Possible Connections Between ...

Stem cell

... the procedure safer for older people. Although normally scarce, the number of peripheral blood cells can be increased by a course of drugs, which release the stem cells from the bone-marrow. These are removed before chemotherapy, which kills most of them, and are re-injected afterwards. Adult stem ...

Twin

... about 6% for the Yoruba or 10% for a tiny Brazilian village (see [1] ). The widespread use of fertility drugs causing hyperovulation (stimulated release of multiple eggs by the mother) has caused what some call an "epidemic of multiple births ". In 2001 , for the first time ever in the US , the ...
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