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Regulatory in Biological Definition

Bioinformatics

... genes that code for proteins , as well as regulatory sequences. A comparison of genes within a ... analysis is the automatic search for genes and regulatory sequences within a genome. Not all of the ... (clustered together) genes to find common regulatory elements and used machine learning techniques ...

Bioinformatics

... genes that code for proteins , as well as regulatory sequences. A comparison of genes within a ... analysis is the automatic search for genes and regulatory sequences within a genome. Not all of the ... (clustered together) genes to find common regulatory elements and used machine learning techniques ...

Gene

... function , or small interfering RNAs have a regulatory role. The DNA sequences from which such RNAs are ... , to specific non-coding DNA sequences called regulatory elements . So, to be expressed, our DNA strand ... For example, natural variations within regulatory sequences appear to underlie many of the ...

Gene regulatory network

... A gene regulatory network (also called a GRN or genetic regulatory network ) is a collection of DNA segments in a ... the metaphor of Boolean networks to model genetic regulatory networks. Each gene, each input, and each ...

Insulin

... between species . Its carbohydrate metabolism regulatory function strength also varies. Pig insulin is ... 3 Actions on cellular and metabolic level 4 regulatory action on blood glucose 5 Signal ... that they may produce a secretion that plays a regulatory role in digestion. Insulin crystals ...

DNA

... of replication and transcription. These sequences are frequently called regulatory sequences , and researchers assume that so far they have identified only a ... of DNA and RNA strands. Segments of DNA that cells have methylated for regulatory purposes may adopt the Z geometry, in which the strands turn about the ...

Morphogenesis

... fate of cells by interacting with DNA . These can be coded for by master regulatory genes and either activate or deactivate the transcription of other ... gene products can regulate the expression of still other genes in a regulatory cascade. Another class of molecules involved in morphogenesis are ...

Glycolysis

... decays relatively quickly when it is not metabolized, this is an important regulatory point in the glycolytic pathway. Phosphoglyceromutase then forms ... ATP by means of the enzyme pyruvate kinase . This serves as an additional regulatory step. After the formation of fructose 1,6 bisphosphate, many of the ...

List of gene families

... . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Genes-encoding regulatory proteins 2 Genes-encoding immune system proteins 3 Related ... transducing proteins 3.3 Transporters Genes-encoding regulatory proteins Homeobox ( Hox gene family) Achaete-scute complex ( ...

Morphogenesis

... fate of cells by interacting with DNA . These can be coded for by master regulatory genes and either activate or deactivate the transcription of other ... gene products can regulate the expression of still other genes in a regulatory cascade. Another class of molecules involved in morphogenesis are ...

Oncogene

... Src-family, Syk-ZAP-70 family and BTK family of tyrosine kinases. regulatory GTPases , for example, the Ras protein . Cytoplasmic Serine / Threonine kinases and their regulatory subunits , for example, the Raf kinase , and cyclin-dependent kinases ...

Promoter

... Distal promoter Anything further upstream (but not an enhancer or other regulatory region whose influence is positional/orientation independent) Specific ... Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions ( enhancers , silencers , boundary elements /insulators) to ...

Proteasome

... nuclear membrane and consists of a 20S core protease particle and two 19S regulatory particles. The 20S unit consists of 2 rings of α subunits and 2 ... and 11.5 nm wide. Each 19S unit consists of a lid and a base with a 19S regulatory particle is attached to each end of the 20S core particle via its base. ...

Allostery

... inhibition occurs when the binding of one ligand decreases the affinity for substrate at other active sites. For example, when 2,3-BPG binds to a regulatory site on hemoglobin, the affinity for oxygen of all subunits decreases or increases. Related topics cooperative binding enzyme ...

Allostery

... inhibition occurs when the binding of one ligand decreases the affinity for substrate at other active sites. For example, when 2,3-BPG binds to a regulatory site on hemoglobin, the affinity for oxygen of all subunits decreases or increases. Related topics cooperative binding enzyme ...

Amino acid

... protonation of the nitrogen occurs, changing the properties of histidine and the polypeptide as a whole. It is used by many proteins as a regulatory mechanism, changing the conformation and behavior of the polypeptide in acidic regions such as the late endosome or lysosome . I Ile ...

Apoptosis

... and then continue with a necrosis. Readers should be aware, however, that the apoptotic pathways that have been summarily described are subject to regulatory mechanisms, and that there is not a 1-to-1 relationship between the reception of TNF or FasL and the complete execution of an apoptotic pathway. Fas, ...

Cell growth

... division before reaching the normal size ( wee mutants). The Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase . It normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein on a tyrosine residue. This covalent modification of the molecular structure of Cdc2 inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cdc2 and ...

Chromosome

... A chromosome (in Greek chroma = colour and soma = body) is, minimally, a very long, continuous piece of DNA , which contains many genes , regulatory elements and other intervening nucleotide sequences . In the chromosomes of eukaryotes , the uncondensed DNA exists in a quasi-ordered structure ...

Enzyme

... substrate (s) attach, and active site (s), where the amino acids perform the catalysis; and frequently one or more other binding sites that serve regulatory functions, which increase or inhibit the enzyme's activity. These typically bind metals or small molecules, often direct or indirect products or ...

Epigenetics

... result in changes in the way genes are expressed in the offspring (see Waterland citation). In both cases, the object of study includes how gene regulatory information that is not expressed in DNA sequences is transmitted from one generation (of cells or organisms) to the next - that is (harking back to ...

Genetics

... See also List of genetics-related topics Related topics genetic screen central dogma of molecular biology gene regulatory network Important publications in genetics List of genetics research organizations genetic counseling genetic testing List of ...

Genomics

... to the organisms that possess it. Conservation also suggests that sequence has functional significance. It may be a protein coding sequence or regulatory region. Experimental investigation of some of these sequences has shown that some are transcribed into small RNA molecules, although the ...

Histone

... Greek histanai or from histos. Until the early 1990s, histones were dismissed as merely packing material for nuclear DNA. During the early 1990s, the regulatory functions of histones were discovered. See also Gene silencing Genetics Histone deacetylase ...

Hormone

... eicosanoids , which includes the widely studied prostaglandins . Physiology of hormones Every cell is capable of producing a vast number of regulatory molecules. The classical endocrine glands and their hormone products are specialized to serve regulation on the overall organism level, but can in ...

Immune system

... dangerous material), and also produce cytokines ( interleukins ) that induce the proliferation of B and T cells. In addition, there are regulatory T cells (T reg cells) which are important in regulating cell-mediated immunity. The intersection between innate and adaptive immune ...

Isozyme

... of an isozyme An example of an isozyme is glucokinase , a variant of hexokinase which is not inhibited by glucose 6-phosphate . Its different regulatory features and lower affinity for glucose (compared to other hexokinases), allows it to serve different functions in cells of specific organs, such as ...

Lac repressor

... at the next exit. The repressor in its active form is like a red light at the entrance. The lac repressor works with the cooperation of another regulatory protein that responds to glucose and activates the lactose path only when glucose is low. It is like a green light at the entrace. The reason ...

Operon

... site for a repressor; transcription of the structural genes takes place unless a repressor is bound to the operator. See also gene regulatory network Lac operon ...

Peripheral membrane protein

... but attach indirectly, typically by binding to integral membrane proteins , or by interactions with the lipid polar head. Therefore the so-called regulatory protein subunits of many ion channels and transmembrane receptors , for example, may be defined as peripheral membrane proteins. These proteins, ...

Phosphorylation

... 2 Other kinds Protein phosphorylation Function In eukaryotes , protein phosphorylation is probably the most important regulatory event. Many enzymes and receptors are switched "on" or "off" by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Phosphorylation is catalyzed by various ...

Quaternary structure

... the subunits assemble. Enzymes composed of subunits with diverse functions are sometimes called holoenzymes , in which some parts may be known as regulatory subunits and the core is often called the catalytic subunit . Examples of proteins with quaternary structure include hemoglobin , DNA polymerase , ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... of a bodily disease." The mode of action of these antidepressant drugs on their direct target, the serotonin transport protein, and possible regulatory mechanisms with respect to long-term alleviation of depression, although having been investigated both neurobiologically and clinically over the last ...

Synapse

... of the synapse. It is subject to biological regulation. The variability of synaptic strength is often referred to as synaptic plasticity . One regulatory trigger of synaptic strength involves the simple coincidence sensory stimuli and action potentials in the synaptically linked cells. ...

Systems biology

... preventing diseases such as cancer, diabetes and AIDS. See also artificial life Biomedical cybernetics computer simulation gene regulatory network model signalomics Important publications in systems biology Bibliography Gregory Bock and Jamie A. Goode (eds), (2002) ...
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