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Reading in Biological Definition

Genetic code

... Degeneracy of the genetic code 4.3 Phase or reading frame of a sequence 5 Origin of the ... , specified by the codon UGG. Phase or reading frame of a sequence Note that a "codon" is ... Every DNA sequence can thus be read in three reading frames , each of which will produce a radically ...

Down syndrome

... 5 Down syndrome in fiction 6 Further reading 7 External links Overview ... children with Down syndrome do have difficulties reading and understanding more than a rather basic ... Stephen King : " Dreamcatcher " Further reading Down Syndrome: The Facts. (1997), ...

Eugenics

... 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links 8.1 Anti-eugenics ... the theory of his cousin Charles Darwin . After reading Darwin's Origin of Species , Galton was struck ... , The Guardian , July 26, 1933 Further reading Edwin Black, War against the weak: Eugenics ...

Genetic code

... Degeneracy of the genetic code 4.3 Phase or reading frame of a sequence 5 Origin of the ... , specified by the codon UGG. Phase or reading frame of a sequence Note that a "codon" is ... Every DNA sequence can thus be read in three reading frames , each of which will produce a radically ...

Immune system

... of the human immune system 4 Further reading 5 See also Recognizing self and ... determine if a given cell is virally infected by reading the peptides displayed on its MHC molecules. ... such as allergies and asthma . Further reading A standard textbook on the immune system is ...

Rudolf Steiner

... Steiner, in the just mentioned sense, is that reading for people today is rarely a process where the ... is felt and recreated as we read each word. When reading is creative today, that creativity tends to be ... Steiner is criticized for his advice to delay reading until students reach the age 6 or 7. Still, a ...

Apoptosis

... 4.3 1990s and later 5 Etymology 6 See also 7 Further reading 8 References 9 External links Functions of apoptosis ... Caspase Bcl-2 Perforin Granzymes Immunology Further reading Lawen, A. (2003). Apoptosis – an introduction. BioEssays 25 , ...

Biology

... word "biology" 4 Related topics 5 External links 6 Further reading Principles of biology While biology is unlike physics in ... Virtual Library: Biosciences biology discussion forum Further reading Lynn Margulis , Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of ...

Bacterium

... 7 Miscellaneous 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links History and taxonomy The first ... Langlois, lead copyeditors: Ruth Ifcher and Jan Hogle) Further reading Alcamo, I. Edward. Fundamentals of Microbiology . 5th ed. Menlo ...

Cytoskeleton

... 2.1 FtsZ 2.2 MreB and ParM 2.3 Crescentin 3 Further reading 4 External links The eukaryotic cytoskeleton Eukaryotic ... the mechanism by which it does this is currently unclear. Further reading Linda A. Amos and W. Gradshaw Amos, Molecules of the Cytoskeletion , ...

Digital organism

... for digital organisms research 3 External links 4 Further reading History Digital organisms can be traced back to the game Core ... home page Tierra home page Darwinbots home page Further reading O'Neill, B. (2003). Digital Evolution. PLoS Biology 1 , 011-014. ...

Equilibrium

... relationship , between giving and taking ; between buying and reading books (apart from lent books). An addiction is any of various ... balanced signal is also called a differential signal . Further reading Mechanical equilibrium: Marion & Thornton, Classical Dynamics ...

Bacterium

... 7 Miscellaneous 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links History and taxonomy The first ... Langlois, lead copyeditors: Ruth Ifcher and Jan Hogle) Further reading Alcamo, I. Edward. Fundamentals of Microbiology . 5th ed. Menlo ...

Evolutionary developmental biology

... 2 Development and the origin of novelty 3 References 4 Further reading 4.1 See also Introduction During the 1980s and ... , 1997 , Cells, Embryos and Evolution , Blackwell Science. Further reading Brian Goodwin , 1994 , How the Leopard Changed its Spots , Phoenix ...

Experimental evolution

... experiment with E. coli 4 Experimental evolution today 5 Further reading Evolution experiments throughout human history Unwittingly, ... appear frequently in important scientific journals . Further reading W. H. Dallinger (1887). The president's address. J. Roy. Microscop. ...

Fitness landscape

... 2 Fitness landscapes in evolutionary optimization 3 Further reading 4 See also Fitness landscapes in biology Fitness ... to the top of a peak. Illustration by C.O. Wilke, 2001. Further reading Sewall Wright . "The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding, and ...

Human

... 9 Human extinction 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading Terminology In English , juvenile males are called boys ... , Westminster John Knox Press, 1979, ISBN 066424162X Further reading A Look at Modern Human Origins by C. David Kreger. Homo Sapiens ...

Molecular biology

... 2.4 Western blotting and immunochemistry 3 History 4 Further reading 4.1 Notes 4.2 Related topics 4.3 Notable molecular biologists ... of (Rockefeller Institute) money into biological fields. Further reading Keith Roberts, Martin Raff, Bruce Alberts, Peter Walter, Julian Lewis ...

Plant

... 3 Importance 4 Growth 5 Fossils 6 References and further reading 7 See also 8 External links 8.1 Botanical and vegetation ... ideas regarding Continental drift theory. References and further reading Thomas N Taylor and Edith L Taylor. The Biology and Evolution of ...

Plant

... 3 Importance 4 Growth 5 Fossils 6 References and further reading 7 See also 8 External links 8.1 Botanical and vegetation ... ideas regarding Continental drift theory. References and further reading Thomas N Taylor and Edith L Taylor. The Biology and Evolution of ...

Albinism

... tension. Individuals with these conditions may be helped by the use of glasses and low-visual aids such as magnifiers, as well as bright but angled reading lights, but their vision cannot be corrected completely. Although surgery is possible on the ocular muscles, effectively simulating (to a limited ...

Alternative splicing

... the intron must be properly encoding for amino acids . The intron's code must be properly expressible, otherwise a stop codon or a shift in the reading frame will cause the protein to be non-functional. Exon cassette mode : in this case, certain exons are spliced out to alter the sequence of ...

Charles Darwin

... notes formed the basis for his later work as well as providing social, political, and anthropological insights into the areas he visited. From reading Charles Lyell 's Principles of Geology postulating gradual processes over huge periods of time, Darwin wrote home that he was ' seeing' ...

Foot and mouth disease

... during a foot-and-mouth epidemic, when large numbers of animals are destroyed and revenues from milk and meat production go down. For further reading Levy, Jay A., Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, and Robert A. Owens. "Picornaviridae." Chap. 2, section 2.2 in Virology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, ...

Gene

... ways to produce not one but a variety of proteins ( alternative splicing ) from one pre-mRNA. Prokaryotes produce a similar effect by shifting reading frames during translation. The translation of RNA into a protein also starts with a specific start and stop sequence. Once produced, ...

Insulin

... However the practical extraction of insulin is credited to a team at the University of Toronto . In October 1920 Frederick Banting was reading one of Minkowski's papers and concluded that it was the very digestive secretions that Minkowski had originally studied that were breaking down the ...

James D. Watson

... chancellor of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in Cold Spring Harbor, New York . Watson resides on the grounds of the laboratory. Further reading James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick. "Letters to Nature : Molecular structure of Nucleic Acid." Nature 171 , 737738 (1953). James D. ...

Mutational meltdown

... experiencing mutational meltdown is trapped in a downward spiral and will go extinct eventually. See also : Muller's ratchet Further reading W. Gabriel, M. Lynch, and R. Burger (1993). Muller's Ratchet and mutational meltdowns. Evolution 47: 1744-1757. M. Lynch, R. Burger, D. ...

Proprioception

... while walking, especially when attention is focused upon something other than the act of walking (e.g., looking at a person who started talking or reading a billboard). The proprioceptive sense can become confused because humans will adapt to a continuously-present stimulus; this is called ...

Thermoregulation

... the temperature of man varies between 36 C and 38 C, or if the thermometer be placed in the axilla, between 36.25 C and 37.5 C In the mouth the reading would be from 0.25 C to 1.5 C higher than this; and in the rectum some 0.9 C higher still. The temperature of infants and young children has a much ...

Thomas Malthus

... Wallace considered it "the most interesting coincidence" that both he and Darwin were independently led to the theory of evolution through reading Malthus. Ironically, given Malthus's own opposition to contraception, his work was also a strong influence on Francis Place ( 1771 – 1854 ), ...

Vesicular stomatitis virus

... cytolytic infections of mammalian hosts and transmission by insects. In insects, infections are non-cytolytic persistent. For further reading The Lab-On-Site Project has more information about Vesicular Stomatitis Virus . ...

Virus evolution

... models to study virus evolution is the quasispecies model . See also Viral classification RNA virus DNA virus Further reading E. Domingo and C.K. Biebricher and M. Eigen and J.J. Holland (2002). Quasispecies and RNA Virus Evolution: Principles and Consequences. Landes ...

Astrobiology

... Scientists Find Clues That Life Began in Deep Space - NASA Astrobiology Institute Stars and Habitable Planets Life Around a Red Dwarf reading Exercise ...
Other Contents
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