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Rapid in Biological Definition

Adaptive radiation

... Adaptive radiation describes the rapid speciation of a single or a few species to ... only a few can survive on long term. After the rapid development of many new species, lots or most of ... as the result of an environmental change is the rapid spread and development of mammalian species ...

Diabetes mellitus

... of intravenous fluids . The basic principles of DKA treatment are rapid restoration of adequate circulation and perfusion with isotonic ... Oral or intravenous dextrose can also be given. In most cases, recovery is rapid and troublefree. Longstanding hypoglycemia may require hospital admission ...

Neurotransmitter

... in vesicles . When an action potential travels to the synapse, the rapid depolarization causes calcium ion channels to open. Calcium then ... effect is determined by its receptor. For example, GABA can act as a rapid or slow inhibitor , depending on whether an ionotropic or metabotropic ...

Parthenogenesis

... suggest that, while asexual reproduction may have short term benefits when rapid population growth is important or in stable environments, over the long term sexual reproduction offers a net advantage by allowing more rapid adaptation to changing environments. Asexual lineages can increase their ...

Species

... Cross-species Mating May Be Evolutionarily Important And Lead To rapid Change, Say Indiana University Researchers Quote: ... sudden mixing of closely related species may occasionally provide the energy to impel rapid evolutionary ... 2004-01-09 ScienceDaily: Mayo Researchers ...

Synapse

... of a nerve impulse (or action potential ) and occurs through an unusually rapid process of cellular secretion : Within the pre-synaptic nerve terminal, ... a synapse may in effect diminish as a train of action potentials arrive in rapid succession--a phenomenon that gives rise to the so-called frequency ...

Vestibular system

... push-pull principle described above, forms the physiological basis of the rapid head impulse test or Halmagyi-Curthoys-test : when the function of your ... are generated, and the patient cannot fixate a point in space during this rapid head movement. Mechanics The mechanics of the semicircular canals ...

Actin

... dissociates from the minus end and the increase in ADP-actin stimulates the exchange of bound ADP for ATP, leading to more ATP-actin units. This rapid turnover is important for the cells movement. The protein cofilin binds to ADP-actin units and promotes their dissociation from the minus end and ...

Active transport

... second versus 2000 per second by the exchanger. The exchanger comes into service when the calcium concentration rises steeply or "spikes" and enables rapid recovery. This shows that a single type of ion can be transported by several enzymes, which need not be active all the time (constitutively), but may ...

Antibiotic

... in producing usable quantities of the purified active ingredient which were quickly tested on clinical cases. Physicians were exhilarated at the rapid and reliable cure of conditions which had, until then, been difficult to treat, terrible to endure, and frequently fatal. Observation of other ...

Axon

... system . Along myelinated nerve fibers, gaps in the sheath known as nodes of Ranvier occur at evenly spaced intervals, enabling an especially rapid mode of electrical impulse propagation called saltation . The axons of some neurons branch to form axon collaterals , along which the bifurcated ...

Biology

... Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, although they may place some early-branching groups very differently, presumably owing to rapid rRNA evolution. The exact relationships of the three domains are still being debated. Despite the underlying unity, life exhibits an astonishing ...

Biodiversity

... the Earth supported more biodiversity than in any other period in geological history. Since the advent of humans, however, biodiversity has begun a rapid decline, with one species after another suffering extinction . Estimates of global species diversity vary from 2 million to 100 million species, ...

Cancer

... the integrity of organs and tissues . Mutations in DNA that lead to cancer appear to disrupt these orderly processes. The uncontrolled and often rapid proliferation of cells can lead to either a benign tumor or a malignant tumor (cancer). Benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body ...

Cell growth

... of the motor unit that is controlled by the motoneuron. Invertebrates often have giant neurons and axons that provide special functions such as rapid action potential propagation. Mammals also use this trick for increasing the speed of signals in the nervous system, but they can also use myelin ...

Computed axial tomography

... the chest (CTPA) is also becoming the primary method for detecting pulmonary embolism (PE) and aortic dissection , and requires accurately timed rapid injections of contrast and high-speed helical scanners. CT is the standard method of evaluating abnormalities seen on chest X-ray and of following ...

Culture

... different cultures can easily spread from one group of people to another. Culture is dynamic and can be taught and learned, making it a potentially rapid form of adaptation to change in physical conditions. Anthropologists view culture as not only a product of biological evolution but as a ...

Dendrite

... those that input only weakly (more at synapse ). This integration is in aspects "temporal" -- involving the summation of stimuli that arrive in rapid succession -- as well as "spatial" -- entailing the aggregation of excitatory and inhibitory inputs from separate branches or "arbors." The term ...

Down syndrome

... of Down syndrome neurons with free radical scavengers can substantially prevent neuronal degeneration . Oxidative damage to neurons results in rapid brain aging similar to that of Alzheimer's disease . Another chromosome 21 gene that might predispose Down syndrome individuals to develop ...

Ebola

... , eyes , or gastrointestinal tract . The patient may also be going into shock (has a systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg or a rapid weak pulse). Finally, that patient may have had contact with someone in the last three weeks that had an unexplained illness with fever or bleeding ...

Epigenetics

... the next - that is (harking back to the Greek prefix), 'in addition to' the genetic information encoded in the DNA. In recent years, there has been rapid progress in understanding epigenetic mechanisms, which include differences in DNA methylation , as well as difference in chromatin structure. ...

Eugenics

... of society. Man, like every other animal, has no doubt advanced to his present high condition through a struggle for existence consequent on his rapid multiplication; and if he is to advance still higher, it is to be feared that he must remain subject to a severe struggle. Otherwise he would sink ...

Evolution

... . Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, although they may place some early-branching groups very differently, presumably owing to rapid rRNA evolution. The exact relationships of the three domains are still being debated. A group of organisms is said to have ...

Evolutionary biology

... universities had departments that specifically included the term evolutionary biology in their titles. In the United States , as a result of the rapid growth of molecular and cell biology , many universities have split (or aggregated) their biology departments into molecular and cell biology ...

Foot and mouth disease

... (July 2001) some countries, including Canada , the United States , and Australia , have been free of FMD for some time, its wide host range and rapid spread represent cause for international concern. There was an outbreak of FMD in Britain in 2001 which resulted in the slaughter of many ....

Genomics

... first free-living organism to be sequenced was that of Haemophilus influenzae (1.8Mb) in 1995 , and since then genomes are being sequenced at a rapid pace. A rough draft of the human genome was completed by the Human Genome Project in early 2001 amid much fanfare. The growth of the "omics" ...

Immunology

... , ELISA and immunohistochemical staining of microscope slides. The speed, accuracy and simplicity of such tests has led to the development of rapid techniques for the diagnosis of disease, microbes and even illegal drugs in vivo (of course tests conducted in closed environment have a higher ...

Insulin

... (Lilly's is 'lispro', Novo Nordisk's is 'aspart'), or steadily absorbed after injection instead of having a 'peak' followed by a more or less rapid decline in insulin action ( Aventis ' version is 'Insulin glargine') all while retaining insulin action in the human body. The management of ...

Interphase

... cycle , defined only by the absence of cell division . Cells during interphase may or may not be growing. At any given time, even in an area of rapid cell division such as the tip of a plant root , 90 per cent of cells are in interphase. Some cells, such as nerve cells, can stay in interphase ...

Ion channel

... fish, bees, sea snails and others) work by plugging ion channel pores. But ion channels figure in a wide variety of biological processes that involve rapid changes in cells. In the search for any drug, ion channels are a favorite target. Diversity and activation Voltage-gated channels sense ...

Actin

... dissociates from the minus end and the increase in ADP-actin stimulates the exchange of bound ADP for ATP, leading to more ATP-actin units. This rapid turnover is important for the cells movement. The protein cofilin binds to ADP-actin units and promotes their dissociation from the minus end and ...

Morula

... development in animals , including the 16-cell phase, the 32-cell phase, and the 64-cell phase. The morula is produced by embryonic cleavage , the rapid cell division of the zygote with virtually no growth. The morula is a solid ball; after the 64-cell phase, it develops into a hollow ball, the ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... MRI (fMRI) measures signal changes in the brain that are due to changing neural activity. The brain is scanned at low resolution but at a rapid rate (typically once every 2-3 seconds). Increases in neural activity cause changes in the MR signal via a mechanism called the BOLD ( blood oxygen ...

Muscle

... pound") the Pregnancy Today website (Uterus "strongest") See also list of muscles in the human body myotomy sphincter rapid plant movement ...

Nervous system

... cells : Neurons are the primary cells of the nervous system Glia are secondary cells involved in nourishment and structural support. rapid signalling within the nervous system occurs by two primary mechanisms: Within neuronal nerve fibers by way of action potentials Between ...

Neuron

... other cells. Types of signalling Neurons communicate with one another across synapses. This communication is usually chemically mediated by rapid secretion of neurotransmitter molecules . Pre-synaptic neurons (i.e.the neurons which release the neurotransmitter) may produce in the ...

Red Queen

... they attack their hosts in a variety of ways. Two consecutive generations might be faced with very different selective pressures. If this change is rapid enough, it might explain the persistence of sex. References Matt Ridley ( 1995 ) The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature , ...

Thermoregulation

... smaller one of the same nature, but the surface of the smaller, being greater in proportion to its bulk than that of the larger, loses heat at a more rapid rate. Hence to maintain the same constant bodily temperature, the smaller animal must produce a relatively larger amount of heat. And in the struggle ...

Unsolved problems in biology

... Are the conditions necessary for the origin of life narrow or broad? How did life originate and diversify in hundred millions of years? Why, after rapid diversification, do microorganisms remain unchanged for millions of years? Did life start on this planet or was there an extraterrestrial ...

Virus

... the metabolism of the host. Therefore, the study of viruses can provide fundamental information about aspects of cell biology and metabolism. The rapid growth and small genome size of bacteria make them excellent tools for experiments in biology. Bacterial viruses have also further simplified the ...
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