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Range in Biological Definition

Nutrition

... human digestion system contains a population of a range of bacteria which are essential to digestion, and ... ‘normal functioning’ is affected by a range of situations, which are often open to choice. A ... they recommend increased exercise, a wider range of foods, using less food processing and cooking, ...

Thermoregulation

... regulation Life on earth exists within a narrow range of temperature which is stabilized by the unique ... of infants and young children has a much greater range than this, and is susceptible of wide ... but that the mean temperature is lower and the range less than in diurnal birds of the same size. That ...

Reproduction

... binary fission , fragmentation and spore formation . There are a wide range of reproductive strategies employed by different species. Some animals, ... (many offspring). Which strategy is favoured depends on a wide range of circumstances. In Marxian economics , reproduction can refer to ...

Biology

... viewed as independent disciplines. Together, they study life over a wide range of scales . Life is studied at the atomic and molecular scale in ... . Botany is the scientific study of plants . Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study the growth , reproduction , ...

Biodiversity

... described; however, the estimates of the true number of current species range from 3.6 to more than 100 million. Some also say that the knowledge of the ... a mass extinction is under way. While estimates over extinction rates range from a handful to upwards of 200 species a day, most scientists believe ...

Fermentation

... in the brewing process. Doing the latter rest at the lower end of the range produces more low-order sugars which are more fermentable by the yeast . ... and higher in alcohol . While a rest closer to the higher end of the range creates more higher-order sugars, which are less fermentable by the yeast ...

Macroecology

... include questions of species richness and the species-area curve , range size , body size and species abundance . For example, the relationship between abundance and range size (why species that maintain large local population sizes tend to be ...

Olfaction

... detect the frequencies of vibrations of odor molecules in the infrared range by electron tunnelling . This would allow encoding of odors to be similar ... features, the combination of features gives the olfactory system a broad range of odors that it can detect. Odor information is easily stored in long ...

Reproduction

... binary fission , fragmentation and spore formation . There are a wide range of reproductive strategies employed by different species. Some animals, ... (many offspring). Which strategy is favoured depends on a wide range of circumstances. In Marxian economics , reproduction can refer to ...

Optical spectrum

... spectrum. Wavelengths visible to the eye are defined by the spectral range of the " optical window ", the region of the electromagnetic spectrum ... sky is blue). Electromagnetic radiation outside the optical wavelength range is almost entirely absorbed by the atmosphere. Contents ...

Albumin

... plasma protein that is produced in the liver and forms a large proportion of all plasma protein. It is also found in egg white . The normal range of albumin concentrations in human blood is 3.5 to 5.0 g/dL, and albumin normally constitutes about 60% of plasma protein; all other proteins ...

Antibiotic

... that most commonly cause the infection and the concentration of antibiotic obtainable in the affected tissue. Side effects Side effects range from slight headache to a major allergic reaction. One of the more common side effects is diarrhea , which results from the antibiotic disrupting ...

Archaea

... , termites , and humans. Archaea are usually harmless to other organisms and none is known to cause disease. Form Individual archaeans range from 0.1 to over 15 μm in diameter, and some form aggregates or filaments up to 200 μm in length. They occur in various shapes, such as ...

Biophysics

... This is the result of biophysics' relatively recent appearance as a scientific discipline. The studies included under the umbrella of biophysics range from sequence comparison to neural networks . In the recent past, biophysics included creating mechanical limbs and nanomachines to regulate ...

Full blood count

... but may be released in certain disease processes. Platelets Platelet numbers are given, as well as information about their size and the range of sizes in the blood. ...

Botany

... study of plant life . As a branch of biology , it is also sometimes referred to as plant science(s) or plant biology . Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study the growth , reproduction , metabolism , development , diseases , and evolution of plants . ...

Chromatography

... chromatography is based on a partition equilibrium of analyte between a liquid stationary phase and a mobile gas. It is useful for a wide range of non-polar analytes, but poor for thermally labile molecules. Ion exchange chromatography Ion exchange chromatography is a method to ...

Down syndrome

... of the same subset of genes (e.g., various translocations of chromosome 21). Depending on the actual etiology , the learning disability may range from mild to severe. Trisomy 21 results in over- expression of genes located on chromosome 21. One of these is the superoxide dismutase gene. ...

Drosophila

... + Latin feminine suffix -a . Physique Typically, the small, two-winged flies of the genus Drosophila are an orange-brown color and range approximately from 3.2 mm to 4.2 mm in length. Most species have red eyes. The feathered arista is characteristic of the family. ...

Foot and mouth disease

... currently (July 2001) some countries, including Canada , the United States , and Australia , have been free of FMD for some time, its wide host range and rapid spread represent cause for international concern. There was an outbreak of FMD in Britain in 2001 which resulted in the slaughter of ...

Gene

... fertilized egg and the day-to-day functions of the cells that make up tissues and organs . The instrumental roles of their protein products range from mechanical support of the cell structure to the transportation and manufacture of other molecules and to the regulation of other proteins' ...

Growth curve

... rapidly. The chemotherapy is no longer useful and is discontinued. The growth of children Children who fall significantly below the normal range of growth curves for body height [2] can be tested for growth hormone deficiency and might be treatable with hormone injections [3] . ...

Photosynthesis

... allows light to pass through to the mesophyll cells where most of the photosynthesis takes place. Photosynthesis in algae and bacteria Algae range from multicellular forms like kelp to microscopic , single-celled organisms. Although they are not as complex as land plants, photosynthesis ...

Human

... after this, reaching their maximum height around the age of 18. These values vary too, depending on genes and environment. Human skin color can range from very dark brown to very pale pink in different people. In general, people with ancestors from sunny regions have darker skin than people with ...

Life

... one thermodynamic work cycle Robert Pirsig 's definition of life, found in his book Lila: An Inquiry into Morals , as that which maximizes its range of possible futures, in other words, that which makes decisions that result in the most future choices, or that which strives to keep its options ...

Lipid

... image on the right, which will be used from now on to represent lipids with one, two, or three chains. The term lipid comprises a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a catch-all for relatively water-insoluble or nonpolar compounds of biological origin, including waxes , ...

Molecular biology

... of cells and organisms. These components include DNA , the repository of genetic information; RNA , a close relative of DNA whose functions range from serving as a temporary working copy of DNA to actual structural and enzymatic functions as well as a functional and structural part of the ...

Muscle

... to being the muscle that performs the largest quantity of physical work in the course of a lifetime. Estimates of the power output of the human heart range from 1 to 5 watts. This is much less than the maximum power output of other muscles; for example, the quadriceps can produce over 100 watts, but only ...

Lipid bilayer

... molecules. The lipid bilayer is the foundation of all biological membranes , and is a prerequisite of cell-based life . Within a critical range of concentrations, certain kinds of lipids alone in a test tube of water will self-organize to form a "bilayer". The bilayer is composed of two ...

Photon

... γ ( gamma ), although in high energy physics this refers to a high energy photon (a gamma ray ; a photon of the immediately lower energy range is denoted X , an X-ray ). Properties All electromagnetic radiation, from radio waves to gamma rays, is quantised as photons: that is, the ...

Photosynthesis

... allows light to pass through to the mesophyll cells where most of the photosynthesis takes place. Photosynthesis in algae and bacteria Algae range from multicellular forms like kelp to microscopic , single-celled organisms. Although they are not as complex as land plants, photosynthesis ...

Primary nutritional groups

... used as electron donors by chemotrophs must be diverted into both energy-yielding oxidative pathways and biosynthetic reductive pathways. The range of possible pairs of electron donors and acceptors for chemotrophs is limited to those whose reaction is exergonic enough to conserve enough energy ...

Protein

... proteins Proteins can be picky about the environment in which they are found. They may only exist in their active, or native state , in a small range of pH values and under solution conditions with a minimum quantity of electrolytes , as many proteins will not remain in solution in distilled ...

Semen

... secreted by the bulbourethral glands contributes to the cohesive jelly-like texture of semen. Seminal plasma of humans contains a complex range of organic and inorganic constituents. They include metal and salt ions , sugars , lipids , steroid hormones , enzymes , prostaglandin ...

Vestibular system

... the time constants T 1 and T 2 are approximately 3 msec and 5 sec, respectively. As a result, for typical head movements, which cover the frequency range of 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz, the deflection of the cupula is approximately proportional to the head-velocity (!). This is very useful, since the velocity of ...

Virus

... completely enclose the viral genome and do not generally bind as tightly to the nucleic acid as helical capsid proteins do. These structures can range in size from less than 20 nanometers up to 400 nm and are composed of viral proteins arranged with icosahedral symmetry. Icosahedral architecture ...

X chromosome

... a male or a female), sexual development, and the ability to have children (fertility). The signs and symptoms of these conditions vary widely and may range from mild to severe. They can be caused by missing or extra copies of the sex chromosomes or by structural changes in the chromosomes. Other ...

Y chromosome

... of a male or a female), sexual development, and the ability to have children (fertility). The signs and symptoms of these conditions vary widely and range from mild to severe. They can be caused by missing or extra copies of the sex chromosomes or by structural changes in the chromosomes. Rarely, ...
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