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Proteins in Biological Definition

Actin

... component in filament production is the Arp2/3 proteins , which serve as sites for nucleation, ... formation of G-actin trimers. All of these three proteins are regulated by cell signaling mechanism. ... structures: bundles and networks. Actin-binding proteins dictate the formation of either structure since ...

Alternative splicing

... done by Serine/Arginine-residue proteins, or SR proteins . The use of alternative splicing factors leads ... can be stored much more economically. Several proteins can be encoded in a DNA sequence whose length would only be enough for two proteins in the prokaryote way of coding. Others have ...

Amino acid

... which in turn form structures called proteins . Twenty amino acids are encoded by the ... an imino acid . Other amino acids contained in proteins are usually formed by post-translational ... the standard 20 are sometimes incorporated into proteins during translation: Selenocysteine is ...

Antibody

... by protein electrophoresis . Here the plasma proteins are separated into albumin , alpha-globulins (1 ... ingests a pathogen , it attaches parts of its proteins to a class II MHC protein. This complex is ... antibodies. Antibodies are also used to separate proteins (and anything bound to them) from the other ...

Apoptosis

... with fragments of inappropriately expressed proteins (resulting, say, from a malignant mutation) or ... cell. Chromatin ( DNA and its packaging proteins ) in the cell nucleus ) undergoes initial ... advanced in the degradation of nuclear pore proteins and have begun to degrade the lamin that ...

Bioinformatics

... are analyzed to determine genes that code for proteins , as well as regulatory sequences. A comparison ... to data from non-cancerous cells to determine the proteins that cancer up-regulates and down-regulates. ... spectrometry (MS) can provide a snapshot of the proteins present in a biological sample. Bioinformatics is ...

BLAST

... such as the amino-acid sequences of different proteins or the DNA sequences . Given a library or ... sequenced come from? What other genes encode proteins that exhibit structures or motifs such as the ... searches against constantly updated databases of proteins and DNA that include most of the newly sequenced ...

Blood

... in the plasma. Larger animals use respiratory proteins to increase the oxygen carrying capacity. ... tunicates (sea squirts) might use vanabins ( proteins containing vanadium ) for respiratory pigment ... In many invertebrates, these oxygen-carrying proteins are freely soluble in the blood; in vertebrates ...

Cell biology

... Processes in cell biology 1.1 Movement of proteins 2 Techniques 2.1 Purification of ... Processes in cell biology Movement of proteins proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in the cytoplasm ....

Chromatin

... in the form of double-stranded DNA. The major proteins involved in chromatin are histone proteins . In a eukaryotic cell , nearly all DNA is ... in the form of double-stranded DNA. The major proteins involved in chromatin are histone proteins. In a ...

Chromatography

... is a method to separate molecules such as proteins by their charge in a process of ion exchange ... IMAC is a popular and powerful way to purify proteins . It is based on the specific coordinate ... used in biochemistry in the purification of proteins (or better: protein constructs). These ...

Bioinformatics

... are analyzed to determine genes that code for proteins , as well as regulatory sequences. A comparison ... to data from non-cancerous cells to determine the proteins that cancer up-regulates and down-regulates. ... spectrometry (MS) can provide a snapshot of the proteins present in a biological sample. Bioinformatics is ...

Cytoskeleton

... has revealed that homologues to all the major proteins of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton can also be found ... site, and is essential for recruiting other proteins that produce a new cell wall between the ... genes encoding actin-like proteins, and these proteins form a helical network beneath the cell membrane ...

Disulfide bond

... to the folding, structure, and function of proteins . When two amino acids bond to each other ... An amino acid that commonly forms S-S bonds in proteins in cysteine . When two cysteines are bonded by ... | | R R In proteins that contain more than one disulfide bond, proper ...

DNA

... sequences specify affinity for DNA binding proteins , which play a wide variety of vital roles, in ... of the chromosomes, which contain spool-like proteins known as histones , around which DNA winds. ... biology in 1957 , describing the process whereby proteins are produced from nucleic DNA. First ...

Gel electrophoresis

... be controlled by the scientist. When separating proteins or small nucleic acids ( DNA , RNA , or ... a negative to positive EMF on the sample. proteins therefore, are ususally denatured in the ... docecyl phosphate (SDS/SDP) that coats the proteins with a negative charge. Generally, the amount of ...

Morphogenesis

... in morphogenesis are transcription factor proteins that determine the fate of cells by interacting ... where they again activate specific cell adhesion proteins and form new tissues and organs. Several examples ... the maternal effect genes are translated into proteins a Bicoid protein gradient forms at the anterior ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... found in all eukaryotic cells . The ER modifies proteins , makes macromolecules , and transfers ... translation and folding of and transport of proteins that are to become part of the cell membrane ... receptors and other integral membrane proteins ) as well ...

Enzyme

... with other such regions, generating new proteins to be tested for evolutionary success. This would ... milk to curdle Chymotrypsin : can digest proteins Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase : ... those enzymes which cut peptide bonds of proteins Protein kinases : those enzymes that transfer ...

Cell membrane

... Cell surface membranes often contain receptor proteins and cell adhesion proteins . There are also other proteins with a variety of functions. These ...

Gene

... construction and regulation of polypeptides , proteins and other molecules that determine the growth ... RNA and translate , at least in part, into proteins . In common speech, "gene" is often used to ... , from bacteria to humans . Through the proteins they encode, genes govern the cells in which they ...

Gel electrophoresis

... be controlled by the scientist. When separating proteins or small nucleic acids ( DNA , RNA , or ... a negative to positive EMF on the sample. proteins therefore, are ususally denatured in the ... docecyl phosphate (SDS/SDP) that coats the proteins with a negative charge. Generally, the amount of ...

Golgi apparatus

... in 1898 . Its primary function is to process proteins targeted to the plasma membrane, lysosomes or ... (SER), (5) Ribosome on the rough ER, (6) proteins that are transported, (7) Transport vesicle, (8) ... protein content into the Golgi lumen . The proteins are then transported through the medial region ...

Heterozygote

... In some cases a mixture of normal and abnormal proteins is produced. In other cases, the abnormal allele may produce no protein at all. If the proteins are enzymes, the less-functional enzyme molecules ... the person is an asymptomatic carrier . If the proteins are structural, such as those that comprise skin ...

Immune system

... 2.1.2 Phagocytic cells 2.1.3 Anti-microbial proteins 2.1.4 Complement system 2.2 Adaptive ... major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These proteins have configurations and amino acid sequences that ... Adhesion is enhanced by opsonization, where proteins like opsonins are coated on the surface of the ...

Intermediate filament

... . They are assembled from several different proteins . IFs crisscross the cytosol from the nuclear ... keratin intermediate filaments These proteins are the most diverse among IFs. The many ... plasma membrane , IFs are attached by adapter proteins forming desmosomes (cell-cell adhesion) and ...

Insulin

... in the metabolism of fat ( triglycerides ) and proteins – it has anabolic properties. It also ... from 51 amino acids and is one of the smallest proteins known; shorter "proteins" are usually referred to ... amount of glucose in other foods. And, fats and proteins both cause delays in absorption of glucose from ...

Ion channel

... the flow of ions , these pore -forming proteins help establish the small negative voltage that ... a circular arrangement of identical or related proteins closely packed around a water-filled pore through ... the difficulty of crystallizing integral membrane proteins for X-ray analysis, it is only very recently that ...

Lambda phage

... that is expressed in that state codes for proteins that look out for signs of stress in the host ... phage will remain in the lysogenic state if cI proteins predominate, but will be transformed into the lytic cycle if cro proteins predominate. The cI dimer may bind to any of ...

List of gene families

... families typically encode functionally related proteins , and sometimes the term gene families is a shorthand for the sets of proteins that the genes encode. They may or may not be ... 1 Genes-encoding regulatory proteins 2 Genes-encoding immune ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... 1 Introduction 2 Molecular biology of MHC proteins 3 MHC evolution and allelic diversity 4 ... importance. Molecular biology of MHC proteins The classical Mhc molecules (also referred to ... , which present peptides derived from cytosolic proteins to the immune system. The peptides are short, ...

Malaria

... this fate, the parasite produces certain surface proteins which infected blood cells express on their cell ... to the walls of blood vessels. These surface proteins known as PfEMP1 are highly variable (atleast 50 ... several human genes responsible for blood cell proteins and the immune system have been shaped by the ...

Actin

... component in filament production is the Arp2/3 proteins , which serve as sites for nucleation, ... formation of G-actin trimers. All of these three proteins are regulated by cell signaling mechanism. ... structures: bundles and networks. Actin-binding proteins dictate the formation of either structure since ...

Mitochondrion

... composed of phospholipid bilayers studded with proteins , much like a typical cell membrane . The two ... membrane contains numerous integral proteins called porins , which contain a relatively ... machinery to manufacture their own RNAs and proteins . ( See: protein synthesis ). This ...

Mitochondrion

... composed of phospholipid bilayers studded with proteins , much like a typical cell membrane . The two ... membrane contains numerous integral proteins called porins , which contain a relatively ... machinery to manufacture their own RNAs and proteins . ( See: protein synthesis ). This ...

Molecular biology

... part of the translational apparatus; and proteins , the major structural and enzymatic type of ... The basic principle is that DNA, RNA, and proteins can all be separated using an electric field. In ... size by running the DNA through an agarose gel. proteins can be separated based on size using an SDS-PAGE ...

Morphogenesis

... in morphogenesis are transcription factor proteins that determine the fate of cells by interacting ... where they again activate specific cell adhesion proteins and form new tissues and organs. Several examples ... the maternal effect genes are translated into proteins a Bicoid protein gradient forms at the anterior ...

Oncogene

... Growth factors 2.2 Protein kinases and related proteins 3 Related articles ... cells. Protein kinases and related proteins There are six known classes of protein kinases and related proteins that can become an oncogene: Receptor ...

Peptide

... has also been documented that when certain food proteins such as gluten , casein , egg protein and ... and dermorphine . Peptides differ from proteins , which are also long chains of amino acids, by ... amino acids in length, since naturally-occurring proteins tend, at their smallest, to be hundreds of ...

Peripheral membrane protein

... Peripheral membrane proteins are proteins that adhere only loosely to the biological ... typically by binding to integral membrane proteins , or by interactions with the lipid polar head. ...
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