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Protein in Biological Definition

Actin

... Actin is a globular protein that polymerize helicaly forming actin ... is important for the cells movement. The protein cofilin binds to ADP-actin units and promotes ... the minus end and prevents their reassembly. The protein profilin reverses this effect by stimulating the ...

Affinity chromatography

... including nucleic acid purification, protein purification from cell free extracts and ... for affinity binding (if the molecule is a protein these are called fusion proteins ). Such tags ... if an organism is immunised against a GST-fusion protein it will produce antibodies against the ...

Amino acid

... , that is modification after translation ( protein synthesis ). These modifications are often ... ethylene . In addition to amino acids for protein synthesis, there are other biologically important ... 115.13 6.30 1.95 10.64 Can disrupt protein folding structures like α helix or ...

Anaphase

... to the centromeres . The point of contact is a protein complex called the kinetochore, and these fibres ... kinases (M-Cdks). It also cleaves securin , a protein that had been inhibiting separase . Separase then cleaves cohesin , the protein responsible for holding sister chromatids ...

Antibody

... An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and ... they are globulins (in the γ-region of protein electrophoresis ). They are synthesized and ... of immunoglobulin levels can be made by protein electrophoresis . Here the plasma proteins are ...

Apoptosis

... For instance, misregulation of Hedgehog (Hgg) protein signalling (see Development , below) has been ... becomes round (circular). This occurs because the protein structures that conform the cytoskeleton are ... superfamily [10] . The Fas ligand (FasL, the protein that binds to Fas and activates the Fas pathway) ...

Bioinformatics

... in the field include sequence alignment , protein structure alignment , protein structure prediction , prediction of gene ... 2.1 Gene expression analysis 2.2 protein expression analysis 2.3 Structure prediction ...

Biophysics

... of molecules. In addition things like solving a protein structure or measuring the kinetics of single ... To include some: gene regulation , single protein dynamics, bioenergetics, patch clamping , ... energy, biomolecular structures and dynamics, protein folding, stochastic processes, surface dynamics. ...

BLAST

... are Which bacterial species have a protein that is related in lineage to a certain protein whose amino-acid sequence I know? Where does ... BLAST (blastp) : This program, given a protein query, returns the most ...

Carbohydrate

... consuming energy , other forms being fat and protein . Relatively complex carbohydrates are known as ... Oligosaccharides are found as common form of protein posttranslational modification . ... can only utilize carbohydrates for energy, and protein may not supply enough in many cases. The increase ...

Cell biology

... the cytoplasm . This process is also known as protein biosynthesis or simply protein translation . Some proteins, such as those to be ... ER and Golgi can be thought of as the "membrane protein synthesis compartment" and the ...

Cell growth

... the normal size ( wee mutants). The Wee1 protein is a tyrosine kinase . It normally phosphorylates the Cdc2 cell cycle regulatory protein on a tyrosine residue. This covalent ... may be regulated in part by dilution of Wee1 protein in cells as they grow larger. Cell size ...

Cell metabolism

... catabolism 2.2 Fat catabolism 2.3 protein catabolism 3 See also ... of energy, and the building of membranes. protein catabolism Main article: protein catabolism ...

Chromatin

... and consists of a complex of DNA and protein in eukaryotic cells . It can be made visible ... of transcription and involves nuclear protein exchange. The histones are mostly displaced, and ... cessation of transcription and involves nuclear protein exchange. The histones are mostly displaced, and ...

Chromatography

... (either naturally present on the surface of the protein or grafted with recombinant DNA techniques ) and ... in the purification of proteins (or better: protein constructs). These constructs can be of fusion ... of these tags are usually removed and the pure protein is obtained. See also Paper ...

Genetic code

... living cell , and is employed in the process of protein synthesis . Nearly all living things use the ... related polymer RNA , which is better suited for protein synthesis. This in turn is translated , by ... polypeptide ), which will then be folded into a protein . The gene sequence inscribed in DNA, and in ...

Collagen

... Collagen is the main protein of connective tissue . It has great tensile ... form. Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals . Contents ... in mammals consists of inter-woven fibres of the protein collagen. The collagen fibres consist of globular ...

Bioinformatics

... in the field include sequence alignment , protein structure alignment , protein structure prediction , prediction of gene ... 2.1 Gene expression analysis 2.2 protein expression analysis 2.3 Structure prediction ...

Cytoskeleton

... are so distant that they are not obvious from protein sequence comparisons alone, the similarity of ... of the eukaryotic tubulin, was the first protein of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton to be identified. ... During cell division , FtsZ is the first protein to move to the division site, and is essential ...

Cytotoxic T cell

... by a MHC-antigen complex, T C cells release the protein perforin , which forms pores in the target ... T C cells have present on the cell surface the protein CD8 , which is attracted to portions of the Class ... activation. T C cells with CD8 surface protein are called CD8+ T cells . ...

Disulfide bond

... S-S bond, the resulting molecule between the two protein chains is called cystine . The figure below ... bacteria as a reversible switch that turns a protein on or off when bacterial cells are exposed to ... links Disulfide bonds and hair protein disulfide bond formation in prokaryotes ...

DNA

... of nucleotides along a DNA strand defines a protein , which an organism is liable to manufacture or ... sequence and the amino-acid sequence of the protein is determined by simple cellular rules of ... of their genomes do double duty, encoding one protein when read 5' to 3' along one strand, and a ...

Morphogenesis

... typically act through binding to specific protein receptors . An important class of molecules ... genes are translated into proteins a Bicoid protein gradient forms at the anterior end of the egg. Nanos protein forms a gradient at the posterior end. The ...

Enzyme

... (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein , or protein complex , that catalyzes a chemical reaction ... by structure. An enzyme can be a monomeric protein made up of about hundred amino acids or more, ...

Facilitated diffusion

... across by transport proteins. The transport protein involved is intrinsic, that is, it completely ... be transported. After binding the molecule, the protein changes shape and carries the molecule across the membrane, where it is released. The protein then returns to its original shape, to wait for ...

Flagellum

... flagellum The filament is composed of the protein flagellin and is a hollow tube 20 nanometers ... the hook and the basal body, passing through protein rings in the cell's membranes that act as ... is driven by a rotary engine composed of protein , located at the flagellum's anchor point on the ...

Cell membrane

... and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell . It ... intrinsic proteins -- more at integral membrane protein ). Glycoproteins have carbohydrates attached to ... and ionic molecules, which relies on a transport protein to provide a channel or bind to specific ...

Gene

... of a gene encodes the chemical structure of a protein . The genetic code determines the sequence of ... and organs . The instrumental roles of their protein products range from mechanical support of the ... a gene specifies the amino-acid sequence of the protein it encodes. In most eukaryotic species, very ...

Genetic code

... living cell , and is employed in the process of protein synthesis . Nearly all living things use the ... related polymer RNA , which is better suited for protein synthesis. This in turn is translated , by ... polypeptide ), which will then be folded into a protein . The gene sequence inscribed in DNA, and in ...

Glycoprotein

... glycoprotein is a macromolecule composed of a protein and a carbohydrate (a sugar ). The carbohydrate is usually attached to the protein in a posttranslational modification , at either ... sialic acid . The sugar group can assist in protein folding or improve its stability. Glycoproteins ...

Hershey-Chase experiment

... virus that infects bacteria . It consists of a protein coat that encloses the genetic material. When a ... T2 phages with radioactive 35 S-labeled protein infected bacteria. In both experiments, bacteria ... DNA is the genetic material of phage and that protein does not transmit genetic information. Hershey ...

Heterozygote

... The effect of heterozygosity depends on the protein product coded for by the gene in question. In ... other cases, the abnormal allele may produce no protein at all. If the proteins are enzymes, the ... or disease. An abnormal gene that produces no protein may not affect the person at all if the other ...

His-tag

... is a good ligand for nickel so the fusion protein will bind to the column. The protein can be eluted with a solution of imidazole . ... The his tag can also be used in detection of the protein via anti-his-tag antibodies . This can be useful ...

Homeobox

... is about 180 base pairs long; it encodes a protein domain (the homeodomain ) which can bind DNA. ... However, the specificity of a single homeodomain protein is usually not enough to recognize only its ... . Pit-1 homeobox-containing protein bound to DNA The homeobox genes were first ...

Insulin

... thousands of islets. They then isolated the protein from these islets to produce what they called ... biologist Frederick Sanger . It was the first protein the structure of which was completely determined. ... glucose increase of DNA replication and protein synthesis modification of the activity of ...

Keratin

... view of stained keratin. Keratin is a protein used by numerous groups of animals as a structural element, and is a classic example of a fibrous protein . Keratin is a tough, insoluble protein found in the outer layer of the skin of human ...

Kwashiorkor

... disorder caused by lack of nutrients, including protein in the diet . The name is derived from one the ... starches and carbohydrates , and deficient in protein (as is common in parts of the world where the ... can be treated by adding food energy and protein to the diet; however, mortality can be as high as ...

Lambda phage

... Holliday structure and requires both the phage protein int and the bacterial protein IHF ( integration host factor ). Both int and ... the convention that genes are italicized, while protein products are not, is followed, i.e. cI refers ...

Lipase

... found in nature, and represent distinct types of protein folds [1] and catalytic mechanisms, most are ... from structure coordinates submitted to the protein Data Bank from: Withers-Martinez, C., F. ... structure of a chimeric pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 from guinea pig. Structure 4:1363-74. ...

Liver

... detoxification, glycogen storage and plasma protein synthesis. It also produces bile which is ... V , VII , IX , and XI , as well as protein C , protein S and antithrombin . The liver neutralizes ...
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