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Product in Biological Definition

Apoptosis

... (HPV), a gene called E6 is expressed in a product that degrades p53 protein, which is a vital ... a gene with an opposite effect: ced-9 . The product of this gene, CED-9, protects cells from ... the mammalian counterpart of CED-3 (that is, the product of the ced-3 gene in C. elegans ). In 1997, ...

Enzyme

... goes to completion more quickly, but the final product is identical. Given a particular starting set of ... is increased until a constant rate of product formation is achieved. This is the maximum ... for all steps in the reaction, and is the product of V max and the total enzyme concentration. ...

Michaelis-Menten kinetics

... ( [S] ) is increased until a constant rate of product formation is achieved. This is the maximum ... reaction is supposed to be irreversible, and the product does not rebind the enzyme. Because we ... m + [S]) approaches 1. Therefore, the rate of product formation is equal to k 2 [E 0 ] in this ....

Polymerase chain reaction

... design very accurate process, on which depends product yield: GC-content should be between ... should not differ >5C and Tm of the amplification product should not differ from primers by >10C. ... just one night. Figure 3 : PCR product compared with DNA ladder in agarose gel. DNA ...

Culture

... That this capacity for symbolic thinking and social learning is a product of human evolution confounds older arguments about nature versus nurture ... change in physical conditions. Anthropologists view culture as not only a product of biological evolution but as a supplement to it, as the main means of ...

Electrical energy

... of a charge Q situated at the electric potential V equals to the product QV . If V is a potential difference , the same expression gives the ... travelling through a waveguide may be calculated by integrating the cross product of the magnetic and electric field vectors throughout the volume. (And ...

Ethyl alcohol

... for use in alcoholic beverages is produced by fermentation : it is a product of sugar metabolism in certain species of yeast in the absence of ... to only about 14% alcohol, but the concentration of alcohol in the final product can be increased by distillation . For a mixture of ethanol and water, ...

Hydrolysis

... hydrolysis reaction that involves breaking an ester link, one hydrolysis product contains a hydroxyl functional group , while the other contains a ... acid product, has a hydroxide group derived from the water. The amine product gains the remaining hydrogen ion. Hydrolysis can be considered as the ...

Isozyme

... individual . This definition encompasses (1) enzyme variants that are the product of from different genes and thus represent different loci (described as isozymes ) and (2) enzymes that are the product of different alleles of the same gene (described as allozymes ). ...

Long-term potentiation

... had good reason to believe that memories were generally not the product of new nerve cell growth. Scientists generally believed that the number of ... Among the first neuroscientists to suggest that learning was not the product of new cell growth was the Spanish anatomist Santiago Ramn y Cajal . In ...

Monoclonal antibody

... . Transplant rejection Muronomab-CD3 , an Ortho Biotech product Immunotherapy: past, present and future . Nature Medicine 9 , ... at Roche Pharmaceuticals . Retrieved 2005-03-10. ^ Novartis product page for Simulect (basiliximab for injection) . Retrieved 2005-03-09. ...

Trait

... different forms in different individuals. A visible trait is the final product of many molecular and biochemical processes. In most cases, ... alleles. Alleles can be significantly different and produce different product RNAs . Combinations of different alleles thus go on to generate ...

Reproduction

... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e.g. photocopying and the making of replicas . It is perhaps most commonly used in the context of ...

Sticky end/blunt end

... bonded by DNA ligase . Blunt ends may be ligated, but the reaction is significantly slower. These terms are most commonly used to describe the product of a restriction enzyme digestion of DNA. ...

C4 carbon fixation

... in the mesophyll cells and the bundle sheath cells. The chemical equation is: PEP carboxylase + PEP + CO 2 → oxaloacetate The product is usually converted to malate , a simple organic compound that gives up its CO 2 to the Calvin cycle after being shipped off to bundle sheath ...

Citric acid cycle

... a two- carbon acetyl group bound to coenzyme A . Acetyl-CoA is the main input to the citric acid cycle. Citrate is both the first and the last product of the cycle (Fig 1), and is regenerated by the condensation of oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Figure 1 : Schematic drawing of the citric ...

Collagen

... different forms known as types: Type I collagen - This is the most abundant collagen of the human body. It is present in scar tissue , the end product when tissue heals by repair. It is found in tendons and the organic part of bone . Type II collagen - Articular cartilage Type III ...

Evolutionary developmental biology

... in the level, pattern, or timing of gene expression , may provide more variation for natural selection to act upon, than changes in the gene product alone. References Sean B. Carroll, 2000 , "Endless forms: the evolution of gene regulation and morphological diversity", Cell , 101 ...

Excretion

... respectively. While urine and feces are both waste material of body processes, they are in completely different categories. Urine is a waste product of the urinary system process while feces are waste products of the digestive system. Feces may contain about one-third bacteria , most of which ...

Gene

... eye color. A gene's most common allele is called the wild type allele, and rare alleles are called mutants . Normally, RNA is an intermediate product in the translation of a molecular gene into a protein. However, for some gene sequences, RNA molecules are actually the functional end products. For ...

Glucose

... . This process can be speeded up. D -Glucose has the same configuration at its penultimate carbon as D -glyceraldehyde. Synthesis The product of photosynthesis in plants and some prokaryotes . Formed in the liver and skeletal muscle by the breakdown of glycogen stores (glucose ...

Heterozygote

... genetics to the fraction of individuals in a population that are heterozygous for that locus. The effect of heterozygosity depends on the protein product coded for by the gene in question. In some cases a mixture of normal and abnormal proteins is produced. In other cases, the abnormal allele may ...

Kinetic energy

... Equations Definition the words in the above equation state that the kinetic energy ( E k ) is equal to the integral of the dot product of the velocity ( v ) of a body and the infinitesimal of the body's momentum ( p ). Newtonian mechanics For non-relativistic mechanics, ...

Citric acid cycle

... a two- carbon acetyl group bound to coenzyme A . Acetyl-CoA is the main input to the citric acid cycle. Citrate is both the first and the last product of the cycle (Fig 1), and is regenerated by the condensation of oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Figure 1 : Schematic drawing of the citric ...

Microscope

... moved into place where it is immersed in the oil. An oil immersion lens usually has a power of 100×. The actual power of magnification is the product of the powers of the ocular (usually 10×) and the objective lenses being used. To study the thin structure of metals (see metallography ) ...

Mitochondrion

... performed only in specific types of cells. For example, mitochondria in liver cells contain enzymes that allow them to detoxify ammonia , a waste product of protein metabolism. A mutation in the genes regulating any of these functions can result in a variety of mitochondrial diseases . Energy ...

Mitochondrion

... performed only in specific types of cells. For example, mitochondria in liver cells contain enzymes that allow them to detoxify ammonia , a waste product of protein metabolism. A mutation in the genes regulating any of these functions can result in a variety of mitochondrial diseases . Energy ...

Molecular evolution

... produced by these agents. Molecular study of phylogeny Main articles: Molecular systematics , Phylogenetics Molecular systematics is a product of the traditional field of systematics and molecular genetics . It is the process of using data on the molecular constitution of biological ...

Operator

... is Q and the operand a function f , we write Qf and not usually Q ( f ); this latter notation may however be used for clarity if there is a product — for instance, Q ( fg ). Later on we will use Q to denote a general operator, and x i to denote the i -th argument. Notations for ...

Photon

... Fock state denoted , meaning n photons in the electromagnetic field mode understood. If the field is multimode, its quantum state is a tensor product of photon states, for example: with k i the possible momenta of the modes and the number of photons in this mode. Molecular ...

Red Queen

... found appropriate for the descriptions of arms races . These comparisons may be made in the fields of military hardware, competition in commercial product markets and competition between people in society for wealth or esteem, but, most famously, the idea was introduced by Leigh van Valen to the ...

Reproduction

... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e.g. photocopying and the making of replicas . It is perhaps most commonly used in the context of ...

Splicing (genetics)

... precursor to the much more common spliceosome). Regardless of which process is used, the excised lariats are discarded. The final mRNA product must have each of the following: A 5' cap , a guanine tri phosphate nucleotide, thus named because it binds to the 5' end of the mRNA; ...

Virus

... late proteins , proteins used to construct the virus coat; and lytic proteins , enzymes used to break open the cell for viral exit. The final viral product is assembled spontaneously, that is, the parts are made separately by the host and are joined together by chance. This self-assembly is often aided ...
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