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Problems in Biological Definition

Albinism

... from both parents of an individual. A variety of problems with photosensitivity in eyesight and skin ... 1 Lack of pigmentation 2 Visual problems associated with albinism 3 Genetics 4 ... Lack of melanin in the eye often results in problems with vision, as the eye will not develop properly ...

Diabetes mellitus

... "artificial" type 1 diabetes. Other pancreatic problems including trauma, pancreatitis or tumors ... fully treatable, but if untreated it may cause problems with the pregnancy, including macrosomia (high ... Among the major risks of the disorder are chronic problems affecting multiple organ systems which will ...

Gene therapy

... 3.3 Adeno-associated viruses 4 problems and ethics 5 See also 6 External links ... simple bacteria, primarily because of the problems involved in carrying large sections of DNA and ... an interesting way of bypassing the DNA problems by actually introducing an extra chromosome ...

Genetic recombination

... crossover 1.2 Consequences of crossover 1.3 problems of crossover 2 Other types of ... the appropriate gene sequence is closer. problems of crossover Crossover recombination can occur ... rare compared to normal recombination, but severe problems can arise if a gamete containing unbalanced ...

Unsolved problems in biology

... Some unsolved problems in biology include: Life . How did it ... anomalies. Engelmann, Wolfgang, " Unsolved problems ". " Electronic properties of DNA ". Physics World. August 2001. Wikibooks Unsolved problems in biology . ...

Artificial life

... 2.2 1950s-1970s 2.3 1970s-1980s 3 See also 4 Open problems 5 References 6 External links Nature of the field ... neural nets Lindenmayer systems game theory Open problems "What is life?" "When can we say that a system, or a subsystem, is ...

Bioinformatics

... overlaps with computational biology in this regard.) Representative problems in computational biology include the assembly of high-quality DNA ... microarray and HT MS data; the former involves a number of the same problems involve in examining microarrays targeted at mRNA, the latter involves the ...

Blood

... , lipids , hormones ) to be transported between tissues and organs. problems with blood composition or circulation can lead to downstream tissue ... directly concern the blood. Pathology See also blood diseases problems with blood circulation and composition play a role in many diseases. ...

Bioinformatics

... overlaps with computational biology in this regard.) Representative problems in computational biology include the assembly of high-quality DNA ... microarray and HT MS data; the former involves a number of the same problems involve in examining microarrays targeted at mRNA, the latter involves the ...

Eye

... 2 Focusing 3 Convergence 4 Ocular Anatomy 5 Eye Related problems 6 See also 7 External links Varieties of eye ... (not in humans) Vitreous humour Zonular fibers Eye Related problems Achromatopsia Age-related macular degeneration Aniridia ...

Muscle

... those that affect the muscles and/or their nervous control. In general, problems with nervous control can cause spasticity or paralysis , depending on ... of the problem. A large proportion of neurological disorders leads to problems with movement, ranging from cerebrovascular accident (stroke) and ...

Amino acid

... L-DOPA (L-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is a drug used to treat Parkinsonism . 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) has been used to treat neurological problems associated with PKU (phenylketonuria). ...

Avian influenza

... of flu: fever cough sore throat muscle aches conjunctivitis in severe cases of avian flu, it can cause severe breathing problems and pneumonia , and can be fatal. Taken from: http://www.bupa.co.uk/health_information/html/health_news/270104avianflu.html References ...

Biology

... In silico Related disciplines Medicine ( Physician ) - Physical anthropology Outstanding problems Origin of life - Unsolved problems in biology Other List of technologies - List of conservation topics Biomedical topics A to E - F to J - K to O - P to T ...

Biomechanics

... curves for the loading and unloading portions of the tests nearly overlap. Nonlinear Theories Hooke's law is linear, but many, if not most problems in biomechanics, involve highly nonlinear behavior. Proteins such as collagen and elastin, for example, exhibit such a behavior. Some common material ...

Botany

... an accurate and complete catalogue of plants provided systematics and taxonomy . Plant responses to ultraviolet radiation can help us monitor problems like the holes in the ozone layer . Analysing pollen deposited by plants thousands or millions of years ago can help scientists to ...

Brain

... , than by the impact itself. Stroke , caused by blockage of blood vessels in the brain, is another major cause of death and brain damage. Other problems in the brain can be more accurately classified as diseases than injuries. Neurodegenerative diseases , such as Alzheimer's disease , Parkinson's ...

Carbohydrate

... Atkins Nutritional Approach advocate the restriction of carbohydrate consumption as a means to achieving weight loss or overall good health . problems have been cited for the long term effects of a no-carbohydrate diet. These include reduced athletic performance, possible brain damage, and ...

Charles Darwin

... Worms for detail of this period. While illness continued to dog him and his fame grew, Darwin continued his struggle to research and write about problems arising from his theory. Experiments on seedlings and domestic animal bones dominated, but when with his ill daughter at a seaside resort he became ...

Ploidy

... Kaguya the fatherless mouse. Aneuploidy Aneuploidy is when a cell contains an abnormal or non-integer ploidy number. This may lead to problems in cell development. Most forms of aneuploidy in humans are lethal, but trisomy (three copies) of the sex chromosome (the cause of Klinefelter's ...

Down syndrome

... physical characteristics associated with the disorder include presence of a simian crease . Early educational intervention, screening for common problems such as thyroid functioning, medical treatment where indicated, a conducive family environment, vocational training, etc. can improve the overall ...

Drug

... drugs Non-NSAID antipyretics Acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol, or under one of its trade names Tylenol), which can cause liver problems due to chronic use NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) which are non-sedating (unlike opiates), but can cause internal bleeding, ...

Endosymbiont

... Thus the distribution of Symbiodinium on coral reefs and its role in coral bleaching presents one of the most complex and interesting current problems in reef ecology. Bacterial obligate endosymbionts in insects Among bacterial endosymbionts of insects, the best studied are the pea aphid ...

Endosymbiont

... Thus the distribution of Symbiodinium on coral reefs and its role in coral bleaching presents one of the most complex and interesting current problems in reef ecology. Bacterial obligate endosymbionts in insects Among bacterial endosymbionts of insects, the best studied are the pea aphid ...

Eugenics

... revealed (and speculating on ways to manipulate them) in society at large. The "Mendelian" school applied combinatorial methods of analysis to problems concerning the resemblance between parents and offspring—a way of conceptualizing heredity that would concentrate on a "height factor" rather ...

Fitness landscape

... optimization methods such as genetic algorithms or evolutionary strategies. In evolutionary optimization, one tries to solve real-world problems (e.g., engineering or logistics problems) by imitating the dynamics of biological evolution. For example, a delivery truck with a number of ...

Ploidy

... Kaguya the fatherless mouse. Aneuploidy Aneuploidy is when a cell contains an abnormal or non-integer ploidy number. This may lead to problems in cell development. Most forms of aneuploidy in humans are lethal, but trisomy (three copies) of the sex chromosome (the cause of Klinefelter's ...

Human

... the 21st century . As of 2004 , around 2.5 out of 6.3 billion people live in urban centers, and this is expected to rise during the 21st century. problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution , crime , and poverty , especially in inner city and suburban slums. ...

Isozyme

... of the pancreas , or initiation of glycogen synthesis by liver cells. Both of these processes must only occur when glucose is abundant, or problems occur. Distinguishing isozymes Isozymes (and allozymes) are variants of the same enzyme . Unless they are identical in terms of their ...

Malaria

... strains of malaria are particularly virulent, mefloquine (trade name Lariam ) is now the recommended prophylactic, despite causing psychological problems in some vulnerable people. Doxycycline , an antibiotic, is also prescribed as a prophylactic against quinine-resistant malaria, though its use is ...

Marfan syndrome

... not necessarily produce obvious symptoms. As a result, regular checkups by a cardiologist are needed to monitor cardiovascular health. Potential problems may be detected through echocardiography , which involves the use of ultrasound to study the heart valves and the aorta. Beta blockers have been ...

Nutrition

... Institute for Integrative Nutrition UN Standing Committee on Nutrition 's website. "The mandate of the SCN is to raise awareness of nutrition problems and mobilize commitment to solve them -- at global, regional and national levels". The site is available in English, French and Portuguese ...

Osmoregulation

... of water intake and loss is by means of those internal and external factors which affect the rate of transpiration. Plants share with animals the problems of obtaining water and in disposing of the surplus. Certain plants develop methods of water conservation. Xerophytes are plants in dry habitats ...

Patau syndrome

... defects, skeletal abnormalities, and other medical problems. Affected individuals rarely live past infancy because of the life threatening medical problems associated with this condition. Patau syndrome affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live births. The risk of having a child with Patau syndrome ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... the length of a primer is limited by the temperature required to melt it. Melting temperatures that are too high, i.e., above 80C, can also cause problems since the DNA-Polymerase is less active at such temperatures. The optimum length of a primer is generally from twenty to forty nucleotides with a ...

Photon

... Derived meanings For the Japanese anime video, see Photon (anime) . External links James Schombert's " Photon self-identity problems " scan ( humor ) ...

Primer

... the length of a primer is limited by the temperature required to melt it. Melting temperatures that are too high, i.e., above 80C, can also cause problems since the DNA-Polymerase is less active at such temperatures. The optimum length of a primer is generally from 30 to 40 nucleotides with a melting ...

Protein

... (proteins repair muscle tissue), low body temperature, and hormonal irregularities. Severe protein deficiency is fatal. Excess protein can cause problems as well, such as causing the immune system to overreact, liver dysfunction from increased toxic residues, possibly bone loss due to increased acidity ...

Stem cell

... cord blood stem cells have been used to treat Gunther's disease , Hunter syndrome , Hurler syndrome , Acute lymphocytic leukaemia and many more problems occurring mostly in children. It is collected by removing the umbilical cord, cleansing it and withdrawing blood from the umbilical vein. This blood ...

Twin

... pregnancies. Parasitic twins Main article: Parasitic twin Sometimes one twin fetus will fail to develop completely and continue to cause problems for its surviving twin. One fetus acts as a parasite towards the other. Human twins Historically, about 1 in 80 human births (1.2%) has ...
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