Ewens's sampling formula
... to the gene at a particular locus then the probability
that there are a 1 alleles represented once ... (3) every mutant allele is novel.
This is a probability
distribution on the set of all partitions of ... Ewens distribution .
When θ = 0, the probability
is 1 that all n genes are the same. When ...
... lines: given a match that had a 1 in 5 million probability
of occurring by chance, the lawyer would argue ... The false assumption that a 1 in 5 million probability
of a match automatically translates into a 1 in 5 million probability
of innocence is known as the prosecutor's ...
3.1 Linear operators
3.2 Operators in probability
3.3 Operators in calculus
3.3.1 ... than just numbers. The expectation operator in probability
theory , for example, has random variables as ... . See also operator algebra .
Operators in probability
Main article : ...
... not faith has not yet been written. (Yockey, 1977. A calculation of the probability
of spontaneous biogenesis by information theory, Journal of Theoretical ... the Origin of Life — an article part of the Talk.Origins FAQ
of Abiogenesis Calculations — part of the Talk.Origins FAQ
... the concept of correlation in 1888 . His statistical study of the probability
of extinction of surnames led to the concept of Galton-Watson stochastic ... a classification system that survives to this day. He also estimated the probability
of two persons having the same fingerprint and studied the heritability ...
... Similarly, in a breeding population, if an allele has a frequency of p , probability
theory dictates that (if natural selection is not acting) in the following ... with the coin toss above, allele frequencies in real populations are not probability
distributions; rather, they are a random sample, and are thus subject to ...
... a time step, each occupied patch can become unoccupied with an extinction probability
e . Additionally, 1- N of the patches are unoccupied. Each of these ... of propagule generation for each of the N occupied patches. This give a probability
of cN for each unoccupied patch to be colonized. So for each time step, ...
... so that any mutation would lead to a different allele (that is the probability
of back mutation to the original allele would be low enough to be ... neutral to deleterious.
They determined that in the neutral case, the probability
that an individual would be homozygous, F , was:
where u is ...
2 Promoter sequences
2.1 Prokaryotic promoters
of occurrence of each nucleotide
2.2 Eukaryotic promoters
... -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed
of occurrence of each nucleotide
T A T A A T
77% 76% ...
... to evolve much faster than in prokaryotes. Furthermore, they are based on hitherto functional amino acid subchains. This may allow for a higher probability
for a functional new protein.
Therefore the adaptation to new environments can be much faster - with fewer generations - than in prokaryotes. This ...
... useful in molecular evolution, is maximum likelihood , which selects the optimal cladogram that has the highest likelihood based on a specific probability
model of changes.
Cladistics has taken a while to settle in, and there is still wide debate over how to apply Hennig's ideas in the real world. In ...
Mayr, Ernst. What Evolution Is . Basic Books (October, 2002). ISBN 0465044263
Gigerenzer, Gerd, et al., The empire of chance: how probability
changed science and everyday life (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
argument from evolution
... still in the body.) Recombination-based approaches in vivo are especially uncommon, because for most DNA constructs recombination is a very low probability
The ex vivo approach was the first to be put in to practice. In 1990 trials were run designed to treat children with an ...
... of parental alleles in an offspring, and the fact that two alleles appear together in one offspring does not have any influence on the statistical probability
that another offspring will have the same combination. This theory of " independent assortment " of alleles is fundamental to genetic inheritance. ...
... attention. This justly celebrated naturalist first published his views in 1801. . . he first did the eminent service of arousing attention to the probability
of all changes in the organic, as well as in the inorganic world, being the result of law, and not of miraculous interposition."
Lamarck's own ...
... The question of whether life exists elsewhere in the universe remains open, but analyses such as the Drake equation have been used to estimate the probability
of such life existing. There have been a number of false discoveries of life elsewhere in the universe, but none of these have survived scientific ...
Magnetic resonance imaging
... motion . In biological tissues however the diffusion is very often anisotropic . For example a molecule inside the axon of a neuron has a low probability
to cross a myelin membrane. Therefore the molecule will move principally along the axis of the neural fiber. Conversely if we know that molecules ...
... against it, an asexual lineage is more likely to be completely wiped out by it. In contrast, a lineage that reproduces sexually has a higher probability
of having at least some members surivive due to the genetic recombination that produces a novel genotype in each individual. Similar arguments ...