... to recognize danger, find food, and identify potential
mates, among other goals. Visual, touch, and ... and to the discovery of the membrane potential
, action potential
, etc., by researchers such as Emil du ...
... proliferation of cells with unregulated growth potential
occur very early in life and progress very ... for cancer cells. Hence, chemotherapy has the potential
to harm healthy tissue, especially those tissues ...
unlimited growth potential
self-sufficiency of ...
... of ions , it can be called an electrochemical potential
gradient of ions across membranes. Ionophores ... important for ion gradients. The chemiosmotic potential
is used as energy storage, chemiosmotic coupling ... form of energy in active transport, electron potential
generation, NADPH synthesis and ATP ...
... the event a cell undergoes when its membrane potential
grows more positive with respect to the ... muscle cells.
... involved a worker who had been exposed to the potential
natural reservoir at the local cotton factory ... much information published about the bioterrorism potential
of Ebola, obviously for security reasons. ... unlikely. The difficulty in changing Ebola to a potential
weapon is twofold: first, the Ebola virus would ...
... energy of a charge Q situated at the electric potential
V equals to the product QV . If V is a potential
difference , the same expression gives the energy transformed when the charge moves through the potential
Electrical energy is also identical ...
... that enable the measurement of this flow and the potential
changes related to them.
At the cellular ... technique, which "clamp" or maintain the cell potential
(voltage-clamp ) or current (current-clamp ) at ... amplifier circuit. The control of the membrane potential
using voltage-clamp is most obviously of value ...
... f(s) also corresponds to the concept of a potential
or energy function in physics . The two ... traditionally think in terms of minimizing the potential
function, while biologists prefer the notion ... is being maximized. Therefore, multiplying a potential
function by -1 turns it into a fitness function, ...
... that all cells possess at rest (see cell potential
Contents ... Voltage-gated channels sense the transmembrane potential
and open or close in response to depolarization ... transport
The Voltage Sensor in ...
... spread to the axon hillock generating an action potential
which then travels as a wave of electrical excitation along the axon. Arrival of an action potential
at the tip of an axon triggers the release of ... excitability of a target cell. An action potential
will only be triggered in the target cell if ...
... but not to the solute, resulting in a chemical potential
difference across the membrane which drives the ... the same strength (that is, until the chemical potential
is equal on both sides).
Osmosis is an ...
2 Example of osmosis
3 Chemical potential
4 Osmotic pressure
5 Reverse osmosis ...
energy ( U , or E p ), a kind of scalar potential
, is energy by virtue of matter being able to ...
1.1 Gravitational potential
... receptors on change of transmembrane potential
3.2 Nuclear receptors
3.2.1 ... receptors on change of transmembrane potential
An ion channel can also open when the receptor is activated by a change in cell potential
, that is, the difference of the electrical ...
... undifferentiated cells which have the unique potential
to produce any kind of cell in the body. Many medical researchers believe stem cells have the potential
to revolutionize medicine , enabling doctors to ... 3 Treatments
3.1 Current treatments
3.2.2 Spinal ...
... by the arrival of a nerve impulse (or action potential
) and occurs through an unusually rapid process ... at the synaptic membrane. The arriving action potential
produces an influx of calcium ions through ... in or out and changing the local transmembrane potential
of the cell. The result is excitatory , in the ...
... surrounding the use of vaccines
for adverse side effects in general
4 ... MMR, and the development of autism  .
for adverse side effects in general
Some people ... of the adverse effects to determine whether the potential
benefits make the risks worthwhile. Since most ...
... life is the sodium-potassium pump , which helps maintain the cell potential
In secondary active transport, there is no direct coupling of ATP; instead, the electrochemical potential
difference created by pumping ions out of cells is used. The two main ...
... which establishes the ionic concentration balance that maintains the cell potential
Besides exchangers, other categories of transmembrane ATPase include ... the Na + /K + exchanger.
Transmembrane ATPases harness the chemical potential
energy of ATP, because they perform mechanical work : they transport ...
... view was that the energy of electron transfer was stored as a stable high potential
intermediate, a chemically more conservative concept.
The problem with ... in Chemistry .
see also: mitochondrion , chloroplasts , chemiosmotic potential
, electron transfer chain , cytochrome
... help propagate excitatory synaptic stimulation whether or not an action potential
is present. This propagation is efficient only toward the soma due to an ... once initiated in the axon in most neurons. This backpropagating action potential
is mediated by the activation of voltage-gated ion channels and can ...
... syndrome are increasingly being offered better chances for realising their potential
for personal and social development. Despite this welcome change, the ... caregiver in organizing their routines and in dealing with institutions or potential
Many children in the UK are now educated in mainstream ...
Electron transfer chain
... protein complexes and lipid-soluable messengers that convert the reductive potential
of energized electrons into a cross-membrane proton gradient. This proton ... cycle and does not pump protons, and Complex V uses the electrochemical potential
generated to create ATP .
Complex IV is the terminus of the electron ...
... is as follows:
In physics , free energy denotes the thermodynamic potential
F = U - TS , also called Helmholtz free energy . In chemistry, this ... work .
In chemistry , free energy denotes the thermodynamic potential
F = U - TS + PV , also called the Gibbs function . In physics, this ...
... it has its applications. For example, in nerves , a threshold electric potential
triggers the generation of a much larger action potential
. (See also leverage points .)
In the ...
... several attempts were made to isolate the secretion of the islets as a potential
treatment. In 1906 Georg Ludwig Zuelzer was partially successful treating ... solution for some. However there are several major limitations - cost, the potential
for hypoglycemic episodes, catheter problems, and, thus far, no approvable ...
... the pair to hypothesize ion channels , which were confirmed only decades later.
The experimental measurements on which the pair based their action potential
theory represent one of the earliest applications of a technique of electrophysiology known as the "voltage clamp". The second critical element of ...
... level that may result in coma or death. Although many individuals have taken barbiturates therapeutically without harm, concern about the addiction potential
(withdrawal symptoms can include tonic-clonic or grand mal seizures potentially leading to permanent disability or even death) of barbiturates and ...
... unit that is controlled by the motoneuron. Invertebrates often have giant neurons and axons that provide special functions such as rapid action potential
propagation. Mammals also use this trick for increasing the speed of signals in the nervous system, but they can also use myelin to accomplish ...
... allow them to aid the helpless, had developed due to natural selection, and to deny them would damage the "noblest part of our nature" for only a potential
future benefit. "Hence we must bear without complaining the undoubtedly bad effects of the weak surviving and propagating their kind," he wrote. For ...
... to work, a way to elevate the bag of dialysis fluid and a method of warming the fluid are all that is needed. The main consideration is the very high potential
for infection with an open catheter; peritonitis is a common complication, as are infections of the catheter exit site or "tunnel" (path from the ...
... junction transistor
Fick's law of diffusion
Gel permeation chromatography
Hydrothermal circulation ...
... of Nazi Germany as a justification for its racial policies caused the philosophy to become almost universally reviled. Modern inquiries into the potential
use of genetic engineering have led to an increased invocation of the history of eugenics in the discourse of bioethics , usually as a cautionary ...
... nm thick and may be discerned only faintly with a transmission electron microscope . One of the key roles of the membrane is to maintain the cell potential
1 A Fluid Mosaic
2 Detailed Structure
3 Transport across membranes
... method of identifying criminals by their fingerprints had been introduced in the 1860s by William Herschel (civil servant) in India, but their potential
use in forensic work was first proposed by Dr Henry Faulds in 1880. In a Royal Institution paper in 1888 and three books ( 1892 , 1893 and ...
... the systematic use of genome information, associated with other data, to provide answers in biology , medicine , and industry .
Genomics has the potential
of offering new therapeutic methods for the treatment of some diseases, as well as new diagnostic methods. Other applications are in the food and ...
... humanity's disobedience or sin broke that relationship, resulting in the Fall . Consequently, humanity is currently not living up to its intended potential
for life , joy , and freedom , and instead suffers under the power of sin and death . According to the Hebrew Bible , God chose the Jews as a ...
... Hyperpolarization has several meanings:
In biology , hyperpolarization occurs when a cell's membrane potential
dips below its resting level .
In physics , hyperpolarization is the selective polarization of nuclear spin in atoms far beyond normal ...
... regions. Although lichens typically grow in harsh environments in nature, many lichens are sensistive to man-made pollutants . Hence, they have potential
as pollution indicator organisms. When growing on mineral surfaces, lichens slowly degrade it by secreting acids that dissolve the minerals, ...
Major histocompatibility complex
... via BCRs and T cells via the Mhc -TCR interaction. This duplicity creates a system of "checks and balances" and underscores the immune system's potential
for running amok and causing harm to the body (see autoimmune disorders .)
All Mhc molecules receive polypeptides from inside the cells they are ...
... but the draining of wetland breeding grounds and better sanitation eliminated it from affluent regions.
Sterile insect technique is emerging as a potential
method to control malaria-carrying mosquitos.
Progress towards transgenic, or genetically modified insects suggests that wild mosquito ...