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Potential in Biological Definition

Brain

... to recognize danger, find food, and identify potential mates, among other goals. Visual, touch, and ... and to the discovery of the membrane potential , action potential , etc., by researchers such as Emil du ...

Cancer

... proliferation of cells with unregulated growth potential occur very early in life and progress very ... for cancer cells. Hence, chemotherapy has the potential to harm healthy tissue, especially those tissues ... evading apoptosis unlimited growth potential (immortalitization) self-sufficiency of ...

Ion gradient

... of ions , it can be called an electrochemical potential gradient of ions across membranes. Ionophores ... important for ion gradients. The chemiosmotic potential is used as energy storage, chemiosmotic coupling ... form of energy in active transport, electron potential generation, NADPH synthesis and ATP ...

Depolarization

... the event a cell undergoes when its membrane potential grows more positive with respect to the ... muscle cells. Related topics membrane potential action potential ...

Ebola

... involved a worker who had been exposed to the potential natural reservoir at the local cotton factory ... much information published about the bioterrorism potential of Ebola, obviously for security reasons. ... unlikely. The difficulty in changing Ebola to a potential weapon is twofold: first, the Ebola virus would ...

Electrical energy

... energy of a charge Q situated at the electric potential V equals to the product QV . If V is a potential difference , the same expression gives the energy transformed when the charge moves through the potential difference. Electrical energy is also identical ...

Electrophysiology

... that enable the measurement of this flow and the potential changes related to them. At the cellular ... technique, which "clamp" or maintain the cell potential (voltage-clamp ) or current (current-clamp ) at ... amplifier circuit. The control of the membrane potential using voltage-clamp is most obviously of value ...

Fitness landscape

... f(s) also corresponds to the concept of a potential or energy function in physics . The two ... traditionally think in terms of minimizing the potential function, while biologists prefer the notion ... is being maximized. Therefore, multiplying a potential function by -1 turns it into a fitness function, ...

Ion channel

... that all cells possess at rest (see cell potential ). Contents ... Voltage-gated channels sense the transmembrane potential and open or close in response to depolarization ... transport active transport Action potential External links The Voltage Sensor in ...

Neuron

... spread to the axon hillock generating an action potential which then travels as a wave of electrical excitation along the axon. Arrival of an action potential at the tip of an axon triggers the release of ... excitability of a target cell. An action potential will only be triggered in the target cell if ...

Osmosis

... but not to the solute, resulting in a chemical potential difference across the membrane which drives the ... the same strength (that is, until the chemical potential is equal on both sides). Osmosis is an ... 2 Example of osmosis 3 Chemical potential 4 Osmotic pressure 5 Reverse osmosis ...

Potential energy

... potential energy ( U , or E p ), a kind of scalar potential , is energy by virtue of matter being able to ... 1 Types 1.1 Gravitational potential energy 1.2 ...

Signal transduction

... receptors on change of transmembrane potential 3.2 Nuclear receptors 3.2.1 ... receptors on change of transmembrane potential An ion channel can also open when the receptor is activated by a change in cell potential , that is, the difference of the electrical ...

Stem cell

... undifferentiated cells which have the unique potential to produce any kind of cell in the body. Many medical researchers believe stem cells have the potential to revolutionize medicine , enabling doctors to ... 3 Treatments 3.1 Current treatments 3.2 potential treatments 3.2.1 Cancer 3.2.2 Spinal ...

Synapse

... by the arrival of a nerve impulse (or action potential ) and occurs through an unusually rapid process ... at the synaptic membrane. The arriving action potential produces an influx of calcium ions through ... in or out and changing the local transmembrane potential of the cell. The result is excitatory , in the ...

Vaccine

... surrounding the use of vaccines 3.1 potential for adverse side effects in general 4 ... MMR, and the development of autism [7] . potential for adverse side effects in general Some people ... of the adverse effects to determine whether the potential benefits make the risks worthwhile. Since most ...

Active transport

... life is the sodium-potassium pump , which helps maintain the cell potential . Secondary In secondary active transport, there is no direct coupling of ATP; instead, the electrochemical potential difference created by pumping ions out of cells is used. The two main ...

ATPase

... which establishes the ionic concentration balance that maintains the cell potential . Besides exchangers, other categories of transmembrane ATPase include ... the Na + /K + exchanger. Transmembrane ATPases harness the chemical potential energy of ATP, because they perform mechanical work : they transport ...

Chemiosmotic hypothesis

... view was that the energy of electron transfer was stored as a stable high potential intermediate, a chemically more conservative concept. The problem with ... in Chemistry . see also: mitochondrion , chloroplasts , chemiosmotic potential , electron transfer chain , cytochrome References: ....

Dendrite

... help propagate excitatory synaptic stimulation whether or not an action potential is present. This propagation is efficient only toward the soma due to an ... once initiated in the axon in most neurons. This backpropagating action potential is mediated by the activation of voltage-gated ion channels and can ...

Down syndrome

... syndrome are increasingly being offered better chances for realising their potential for personal and social development. Despite this welcome change, the ... caregiver in organizing their routines and in dealing with institutions or potential employers. Many children in the UK are now educated in mainstream ...

Electron transfer chain

... protein complexes and lipid-soluable messengers that convert the reductive potential of energized electrons into a cross-membrane proton gradient. This proton ... cycle and does not pump protons, and Complex V uses the electrochemical potential generated to create ATP . Complex IV is the terminus of the electron ...

Free energy

... is as follows: In physics , free energy denotes the thermodynamic potential F = U - TS , also called Helmholtz free energy . In chemistry, this ... work . In chemistry , free energy denotes the thermodynamic potential F = U - TS + PV , also called the Gibbs function . In physics, this ...

Homeostasis

... it has its applications. For example, in nerves , a threshold electric potential triggers the generation of a much larger action potential . (See also leverage points .) Ecological homeostasis In the ...

Insulin

... several attempts were made to isolate the secretion of the islets as a potential treatment. In 1906 Georg Ludwig Zuelzer was partially successful treating ... solution for some. However there are several major limitations - cost, the potential for hypoglycemic episodes, catheter problems, and, thus far, no approvable ...

Andrew Huxley

... the pair to hypothesize ion channels , which were confirmed only decades later. The experimental measurements on which the pair based their action potential theory represent one of the earliest applications of a technique of electrophysiology known as the "voltage clamp". The second critical element of ...

Barbiturate

... level that may result in coma or death. Although many individuals have taken barbiturates therapeutically without harm, concern about the addiction potential (withdrawal symptoms can include tonic-clonic or grand mal seizures potentially leading to permanent disability or even death) of barbiturates and ...

Cell growth

... unit that is controlled by the motoneuron. Invertebrates often have giant neurons and axons that provide special functions such as rapid action potential propagation. Mammals also use this trick for increasing the speed of signals in the nervous system, but they can also use myelin to accomplish ...

Charles Darwin

... allow them to aid the helpless, had developed due to natural selection, and to deny them would damage the "noblest part of our nature" for only a potential future benefit. "Hence we must bear without complaining the undoubtedly bad effects of the weak surviving and propagating their kind," he wrote. For ...

Dialysis

... to work, a way to elevate the bag of dialysis fluid and a method of warming the fluid are all that is needed. The main consideration is the very high potential for infection with an open catheter; peritonitis is a common complication, as are infections of the catheter exit site or "tunnel" (path from the ...

Diffusion

... junction transistor Brownian motion Cell membrane Circulatory system Diffusion equation Effusion Electrochemical potential Emulsion polymerization Fick's law of diffusion Fokker-Planck equation Gel permeation chromatography Hydrothermal circulation ...

Eugenics

... of Nazi Germany as a justification for its racial policies caused the philosophy to become almost universally reviled. Modern inquiries into the potential use of genetic engineering have led to an increased invocation of the history of eugenics in the discourse of bioethics , usually as a cautionary ...

Cell membrane

... nm thick and may be discerned only faintly with a transmission electron microscope . One of the key roles of the membrane is to maintain the cell potential . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 A Fluid Mosaic 2 Detailed Structure 3 Transport across membranes 3.1 ...

Francis Galton

... method of identifying criminals by their fingerprints had been introduced in the 1860s by William Herschel (civil servant) in India, but their potential use in forensic work was first proposed by Dr Henry Faulds in 1880. In a Royal Institution paper in 1888 and three books ( 1892 , 1893 and ...

Genomics

... the systematic use of genome information, associated with other data, to provide answers in biology , medicine , and industry . Genomics has the potential of offering new therapeutic methods for the treatment of some diseases, as well as new diagnostic methods. Other applications are in the food and ...

Human

... humanity's disobedience or sin broke that relationship, resulting in the Fall . Consequently, humanity is currently not living up to its intended potential for life , joy , and freedom , and instead suffers under the power of sin and death . According to the Hebrew Bible , God chose the Jews as a ...

Hyperpolarization

... Hyperpolarization has several meanings: In biology , hyperpolarization occurs when a cell's membrane potential dips below its resting level . In physics , hyperpolarization is the selective polarization of nuclear spin in atoms far beyond normal ...

Lichen

... regions. Although lichens typically grow in harsh environments in nature, many lichens are sensistive to man-made pollutants . Hence, they have potential as pollution indicator organisms. When growing on mineral surfaces, lichens slowly degrade it by secreting acids that dissolve the minerals, ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... via BCRs and T cells via the Mhc -TCR interaction. This duplicity creates a system of "checks and balances" and underscores the immune system's potential for running amok and causing harm to the body (see autoimmune disorders .) All Mhc molecules receive polypeptides from inside the cells they are ...

Malaria

... but the draining of wetland breeding grounds and better sanitation eliminated it from affluent regions. Sterile insect technique is emerging as a potential method to control malaria-carrying mosquitos. Progress towards transgenic, or genetically modified insects suggests that wild mosquito ...
Other Contents
(Date:10/15/2014)... The Ebola virus is spreading rapidly and to an ... experienced in the past and the virus shows a ... been recorded before. For this reason, the German National ... of Science and Engineering, and the Union of the ... statement on the Ebola epidemic today. , In the ...
(Date:10/15/2014)... 44th Rosenstiel Award for Distinguished Work in Biomedical Science ... mechanisms of genomic instability and its implications for the ... alumnus to win the Rosenstiel Award; the first, Rod ... is the Charles A. Janeway Professor of Pediatrics and ... investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Boston ...
(Date:10/14/2014)... Cancer Research shows SIRT6—a protein known to inhibit ... development of skin cancers by turning on an enzyme ... cells. , Previously considered protective, SIRT6 is part of ... regulate genomic stability and prevent some of the genetic ... which can lead to cancer. This study, in the ...
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