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Population in Biological Definition

Allele frequency

... Allele frequency is a term of population genetics that is used in characterizing the genetic diversity of a species population , or equivalently the richness of its gene pool ... locus , b) a gene occupying that locus, c) a population of individuals carrying n loci in each of their ...

Antibiotic

... selection of resistance; if a small subset of the population survives the treatment and is allowed to multiply, the average susceptibility of this new population to the compound will be much less than that of ... compound, which was infrequent in the original population but is now much more frequent in the descendants ...

Biology

... group behavior of more than one individual. population genetics looks at the level of an entire population , and systematics considers the multi-species ... and evolution of organisms In population genetics the evolution of a ...

Evolution

... as a change in the frequency of alleles in a population from one generation to the next. Darwin's ... natural selection , genetic drift or changes in population structure ( gene flow ). Contents ... Balancing selection maintains variation within a population through a number of mechanisms, including: ...

Ewens's sampling formula

... In population genetics , Ewens's sampling formula , introduced ... a random sample of n gametes is taken from a population and classified according to the gene at a ... to the size of the whole population, and (2) the population is in statistical equilibrium under mutation ...

Extinction

... institutions attempt to maintain a viable population for species preservation and possible future ... reproducing organisms) to create a viable population size. The cloning of an extinct species has not ... a deleterious mutation to be spread throughout a population through the effect of genetic drift . A ...

Fitness landscape

... landscape is said to be flat. An evolving population typically climbs uphill in the fitness ... rates this picture is somewhat simplistic. A population may not be able to climb a very sharp peak if the ... is then found in the following way. Initially, a population of random solutions is created. Then, the ...

Genetic drift

... Allele frequencies From the perspective of population genetics , drift is a "sampling effect". To ... the following generation, a fraction p of the population will inherit that particular allele. However, as ... coin toss example above, the size of the breeding population (the ...

Gene pool

... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that ... low genetic diversity (see inbreeding and population bottlenecks ) can cause reduced fitness and an ... many alleles exist for a given gene or locus , a population is said to be polymorphic with respect to that ...

Genetics

... of genetics such as ecological genetics and population genetics . An important area within molecular ... and ecological genetics Main articles: population genetics , Quantitative genetics , Ecological ... which they focus. The foundational discipline is population genetics which studies the distribution of and ...

Hardy-Weinberg principle

... principle is an expression of the notion of a population in "genetic equilibrium" and is a basic principle of population genetics . Contents ... Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were the population under consideration is idealised , that is: ...

Human

... Sexuality 2.7 Body 3 Habitat 4 population 5 Language 6 Origins 7 Culture ... environments is not yet possible. Humans, with a population of about six billion, are one of the most ... 0.3% in Australia. (See list of countries by population and list of countries ...

Isozyme

... result in low fitness and be removed from the population by natural selection . (2) Alternatively, if ... Isozymes and allozymes as molecular markers population genetics is essentially a study of the causes ... T. Clegg, A. L. Kahler and B. S. Weir, eds. Plant population Genetics, Breeding, and Genetic Resources. ...

Metapopulation

... Richard Levins in 1969 to describe a model of population dynamics of insect pests in agricultural fields, ... habitat which are currently unoccupied. Each population cycles in relative independence of the other ... of demographic stochasticity (fluctuations in population size due to random demographic events); the ...

Microevolution

... of small-scale changes in gene frequencies in a population over a few generations, also known as change at ... genetic drift , as well as natural selection . population genetics is the branch of biology that provides ... of large-scale changes in gene frequencies in a population over a long period of time (and may culminate in ...

Mitochondrion

... the electron transport chain 3 Use in population genetic studies 4 The endosymbiotic theory ... working mechanism of ATP synthase. Use in population genetic studies Main article: mitochondrial ... transmission of mitochondrial DNA, scientists in population genetics and evolutionary biology often use ...

Mitochondrion

... the electron transport chain 3 Use in population genetic studies 4 The endosymbiotic theory ... working mechanism of ATP synthase. Use in population genetic studies Main article: mitochondrial ... transmission of mitochondrial DNA, scientists in population genetics and evolutionary biology often use ...

Molecular evolution

... (so-called " junk DNA "). Therefore the DNA of a population may "evolve molecularly", while the phenotype ... of change in allele frequency Main article: population genetics There are four known processes that ... them. Answering such questions is an aim of population genetics . Rare spontaneous errors in DNA ...

Mutational meltdown

... meltdown refers to the process by which a small population accumulates deleterious mutations, which leads to loss of fitness and decline of the population size, which leads to further accumulation of deleterious mutations. A population experiencing mutational meltdown is trapped in a ...

Natural selection

... it alters the frequency of alleles within a population . After a century of obscure and vague ... ecological niche or crowding-out due to population growth can change drastically the adaptive ... growing population, THEN those members of the population with less-adaptive traits (determined by the ...

Population

... For the use of the word population in statistics, see statistical population . In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms ...

Population dynamics

... population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term ... processes influencing those changes. population dynamics is the dominant branch of mathematical ... game SimCity tries to simulate some of these population dynamics. Population dynamics also attempts to ...

Population genetics

... population genetics is the study of the distribution of and ... and migration . It also takes account of population subdivision and population structure in space. As such, it is the theory ...

Sociobiology

... from ethology , evolution , sociology , and population genetics . Within the study of humans, ... processes of sociobiology use paradigms and population statistics similar to actuarial analyses of the ... balance. Just as an expansion of a sheep population might encourage the expansion of a wolf ...

Species

... population. Without reproductive isolation, population differences cannot develop, and given ... methods: for example, do the members of population A respond appropriately to playback of the recorded mating calls of population B ? Sometimes, experiments can provide firm ...

Thomas Malthus

... William Godwin . In An Essay on the Principle of population , published in 1798 , Malthus predicted population would outrun food supply, leading to a decrease ... This prediction was based on the idea that population if unchecked increases at a geometric rate ....

Genetic recombination

... is commonly used in classical genetics , evolutionary biology , and population genetics . However, in molecular biology , recombination generally ... of genes or genetic markers occur more or less frequently in a population than would be expected from their distances apart. This concept is applied ...

Heterozygote

... refers to both the state of being a heterozygote, but more commonly in population genetics to the fraction of individuals in a population that are heterozygous for that locus. The effect of heterozygosity ...

Life

... emerging from conditions common on planetary bodies, and consisting of a population of replicators capable of mutation, around each set of which a homeostatic ... entities alive. Generally, all five characteristics are required for a population to be considered alive. Origin of life Main article: Origin of ...

Mathematical biology

... , Lotka-Volterra equation , mathematical model , morphometrics , population dynamics , population genetics , theoretical biology . External links Society for ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... that the substitution they carry becomes a universal feature of the population or species. When an allele carrying one of these new substitutions becomes ... clock techniques have emerged. Many molecular biologists and population geneticists , besides Kimura, contributed to the development of the ...

Parasitology

... parasitology 1.2 Veterinary parasitology 1.3 Parasite ecology and population genetics 1.4 Taxonomy and phylogenetics 2 See also 3 ... wipe out populations which are not resistant. Parasite ecology and population genetics The study of parasites can reveal information about their ...

Parthenogenesis

... that, while asexual reproduction may have short term benefits when rapid population growth is important or in stable environments, over the long term sexual ... This means that an asexual lineage will have roughly double the rate of population growth under ideal conditions. Organisms that can reproduce through ...

Promoter

... addressed by the discipline of pharmacogenomics . Asthma population genetics study: Hobbs, K.; Negri, J.; Klinnert, M.; Rosenwasser, L.J.; and ... and asthma . Am J Respir Crit Care Med . 158 (6), 1958-1962. population genetics study: Burchard, E.G.; Silverman, E.K.; Rosenwasser, L.J.; ...

Sewall Wright

... 21 , 1889 - March 3 , 1988 ) was one of the primary founders of population genetics which led to the modern evolutionary synthesis . In a long ... selection to processes in animal and plant breeding, and his work on population genetics theory greatly influenced Jay Lush , who did the pioneering work ...

Albinism

... in four chances of getting one normal and one albinism gene, having normal pigment but being a carrier. The incidence of carriers in the British population is approximately 1 in 50. Snowdrop, an albino African Penguin, born at Bristol Zoo (England), died in August 2004. No other zoo in the ...

Biophysics

... relationships. Computer science - molecular simulations, sequence alignment, neural networks, databases. Mathematics - graph/network theory, population modeling, phylogenetical analysis . Medicine and neuroscience - tackling neural networks experimentally (brain slicing) as well as ...

Cloning

... Wars Episode II are regarded as the best cloners in the galaxy. Metropolis : a movie in which the workers are cloned. Brave New World : the population is grown.The lower castes are cloned from a single egg (Bokanofskyfied ). External links Cloning in Focus , an accessible and ...

Diabetes mellitus

... by certain types of medications (e.g. long-term steroid use). About 90-95% of all North American cases of diabetes are type 2, and about 20% of the population over the age of 65 is a type 2 diabetic. The fraction of type 2 diabetics in other parts of the world varies substantially, almost certainly for ...

Down syndrome

... Syndrome share many of the characteristics of their parents, with an average life expectancy of 49 years in the USA versus 77 years for the whole population ( [2] ) thanks mainly to improved diet, housing, health and social care. Many children and adults with Down's syndrome enjoy a satisfactory quality ...
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