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Plasma in Biological Definition

Albumin

... albumen , or egg white. Albumin is a blood plasma protein that is produced in the liver and forms a large proportion of all plasma protein. It is also found in egg white . The ... and albumin normally constitutes about 60% of plasma protein; all other proteins present in ...

Antibody

... of the antibody Immunoglobulins are heavy plasma proteins, often with added sugar chains (see ... be made by protein electrophoresis . Here the plasma proteins are separated into albumin , ... antybody. IgD IgD makes up about 1% in the plasma membranes in B-lymphocytes. It is monomeric with ...

Blood

... is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells ( red blood cells , white blood ... about 45% of whole blood. The other 55% is blood plasma , a yellowish fluid that is the blood's liquid ... and are involved in inflammation . Blood plasma is essentially an aqueous solution containing ...

Cell biology

... the Golgi, membrane proteins can move to the plasma membrane , to other subcellular comparments or ... proteins "flow" through the ER and Golgi to the plasma membrane. From the plasma membrane, proteins destined to be degraded move ...

Diabetes mellitus

... by demonstrating any one of two fasting plasma glucose levels above 7 mmol/l (125 mg/dl) on different days; plasma glucose above 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) two hours ... number of red blood cells. Persistent raised plasma glucose levels causes the proportion of these ...

Dialysis

... minerals are either similar to those of normal plasma to prevent loss, or higher than those of plasma to act as nutrient supplements. If a strong glucose solution is used, osmosis of water from plasma would occur. Dialysis is conducted in a ...

Flagellum

... one in the peptidoglycan layer and one in the plasma membrane . Gram-negative organisms have 4 ... peptidoglycan layer, M ring is imbedded in the plasma membrane , and the S ring is directly attached to the plasma membrane. The filament ends with a capping ...

Cell membrane

... , the selectively permeable cell membrane (or plasma membrane or plasmalemma ) is a thin and ... providing primarily mechanical support. The plasma membrane is only about 10 nm thick and may be ... The basic composition and structure of the plasma membrane is the same as that of the membranes ...

Golgi apparatus

... function is to process proteins targeted to the plasma membrane, lysosomes or endosomes and those that ... the Golgi apparatus, (12) Secretory vesicle, (13) plasma membrane, (14) Exocytosis , (15) Cytoplasm, (16) ... while the trans face is directed towards the plasma membrane (Fig. 1). The cis and trans faces have ...

Kidney

... Blood pressure provides the force for blood plasma to be filtered through the thin, porous ... glomerular filtrate. The filtrate is blood plasma without blood cells and large-molecule proteins. ... hydronium ions and hydroxyl ions , the blood plasma is maintained by the kidney at pH 7.4. Urine, on ...

Cell membrane

... , the selectively permeable cell membrane (or plasma membrane or plasmalemma ) is a thin and ... providing primarily mechanical support. The plasma membrane is only about 10 nm thick and may be ... The basic composition and structure of the plasma membrane is the same as that of the membranes ...

Plasmolysis

... wall and encounter the selectively permeable plasma membrane . The large vacuole in the center of the ... cell membrane and the cell wall enlarges and the plasma membrane and the protoplasm within it contract ... of cytoplasm extend to the cell wall because of plasma membrane-cell wall attachment points. If ...

Blood plasma

... Blood plasma is a component of blood . It is the liquid in which blood cells are suspended. Blood plasma contains proteins , nutrients , metabolic end ... electrolytes . Serum is the same as blood plasma except that clotting factors (such as fibrin ) ...

Semen

... ) and noncellular compartment ( seminal plasma ). It contains the sperm , which sometimes ... cohesive jelly-like texture of semen. Seminal plasma of humans contains a complex range of organic ... and basic amines . The purpose of the seminal plasma is to provide a nutritive and protective medium ...

Signal transduction

... are proteins that span the thickness of the plasma membrane of the cell, with one end of the ... the hormone itself does not pass through the plasma membrane into the cell. Hormone recognition ... changes Signal transduction across the plasma membrane is possible only by many components ...

Actin

... or contraction. In the first case, one end of myosin is bound to the plasma membrane while the other end walks towards the plus end of the actin ... actin-binding protein, filamin , form the cells cortex. This underlies the plasma membrane and is responsible for the shape of the cell. ...

B cell

... but are not producing antibodies. There are two types of B cells: plasma B cells secrete antibodies which effect the destruction of antigens ... Humoral immunity (the creation of antibodies that circulate in blood plasma and lymph ) involves B cell activation . Cell activation can be gauged ...

Actin

... or contraction. In the first case, one end of myosin is bound to the plasma membrane while the other end walks towards the plus end of the actin ... actin-binding protein, filamin , form the cells cortex. This underlies the plasma membrane and is responsible for the shape of the cell. ...

Zona pellucida

... The zona pellucida is a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the plasma membrane of a mammalian oocyte . This structure binds spermatozoa , ... , is responsible for sperm binding, adhering to proteins on the sperm plasma membrane. There is evidence that ZP3 is then involved in the induction of ...

Acrosome

... pellucida, this reaction takes place, during which actin polymerizes to form the acrosomal process ; also, the acrosomal vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane of the egg cell, and digestive enzymes are released from the sperm to digest the zona pellucida and give access to the egg. See also ...

Acrosome

... pellucida, this reaction takes place, during which actin polymerizes to form the acrosomal process ; also, the acrosomal vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane of the egg cell, and digestive enzymes are released from the sperm to digest the zona pellucida and give access to the egg. See also ...

Apoptosis

... to as karyorrhexis ). The nucleus breaks into several discrete chromatin bodies or nucleosomal units due to the degradation of DNA [4] . plasma membrane blebbings. The cell is phagocytosed , or , The cell breaks apart into several vesicles called apoptotic bodies , which are then ...

Biological membrane

... environment that differs from the outside. For example, the membrane around peroxisomes shields the rest of the cell from peroxides , and the plasma membrane separates a cell from its surrounding medium. Most organelles are defined by such membranes. Probably the most important feature of a ...

Cell metabolism

... Protein catabolism is the breakdown of proteins into amino acids and simple derivative compounds, for transport into the cell through the plasma membrane and ultimately for the polymerisation into new proteins via the use of ribonucleic acids ( RNA ) and ribosomes . See also ...

Cytoplasm

... Cytoplasm is the colloidal , semi-fluid matter contained within the cell 's plasma membrane , in which organelles are suspended. In contrast to the protoplasm , the cytoplasm does not include the cell nucleus , the interior of ...

Cytoskeleton

... 7 nm. in diameter, this filament is composed of two actin chains oriented in an helicoidal shape. They are mostly concentrated just beneath the plasma membrane, as they keep cellular shape, form cytoplasmatic protuberancies (like pseudopods and microvillus ), participate in some cell-to-cell or ...

Cytotoxic T cell

... and tumor cells. Once activated by a MHC-antigen complex, T C cells release the protein perforin , which forms pores in the target cell's plasma membrane ; this causes ions and water to flow into the target cell, making it expand and eventually lyse . T C also release granzyme , a serine ...

Cytosol

... toward the outside of the cell. Water flows into the cell, making the cell larger. To prevent the cell from bursting apart, molecular pumps in the plasma membrane , the cytoskeleton, the tonoplast or the cell wall (if present), are used to counteract the osmotic pressure. Details The cytosol ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... the cell. Prokaryotic organisms do not have organelles and thus do not have an ER. ER's base structure and composition is similar to the plasma membrane , though it is an extension of the nuclear membrane . The ER is the site of the translation and folding of and transport of proteins ...

Endomembrane system

... a lipid bilayer, with proteins attached to either side or traversing them. The following organelles are part of the endomembrane system: The plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer membrane that separates the cell from its environment and regulates the transport of molecules and signals into and out ...

Glycoprotein

... , and is important for sperm -egg interaction. Soluble glycoproteins often show a high viscosity , for example, in egg white and blood plasma . See also Proteoglycan Abeta [1] ...

Homeostasis

... limits. The internal environment of a living organism's body features body fluids in multicellular animals. The body fluids include blood plasma , tissue fluid and intracellular fluid . The maintenance of a steady state in these fluids is essential to living things as the lack of it harms ...

Hormone

... and excretion of hormones. Hormone secretion can be stimulated and inhibited by: Other hormones ( stimulating or releasing -hormones) plasma concentrations of ions or nutrients, as well as binding globulins Neurons and mental activity Environmental changes, e.g. of light or ...

Immune system

... of discrimination, however, are not hard-wired --- rather, they involve the immune system learning to recognize non-self. For instance, the plasma membrane of every nucleated cell contains molecules of a large glycoprotein called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These proteins ...

Intermediate filament

... (NF-M) Neurofilament-H (NF-H) Nestin Intermediate filament type VI. It is found in neural stem cells . Cell adhesion At the plasma membrane , IFs are attached by adapter proteins forming desmosomes (cell-cell adhesion) and hemidesmosomes (cell-matrix adhesion). ...

Lipase

... Tjoelker, L. W., C. Eberhardt, J. Unger, H. L. Trong, G. A. Zimmerman, T. M. McIntyre, D. M. Stafforini, S. M. Prescott, and P. W. Gray. 1995. plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase is a secreted phospholipase A2 with a catalytic triad. J Biol Chem 270:25481-7. Winkler, F. K., A. ...

Liver

... including humans. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body including detoxification, glycogen storage and plasma protein synthesis. It also produces bile which is important for digestion. Medical terms related to the liver often start in hepato- or hepatic ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... extracellular proteins are endocytosed , digested in lysosomes , and bound by the class II MHC molecule prior to the molecule's migration to the plasma membrane. The peptides are longer, generally between 15-24 amino-acid residues. Because class II Mhc is loaded with extracellular proteins, it ...

Memory B cell

... system for later use, for long periods of time, possibly a whole lifetime. Like other cells such as helper T cells , killer T cells , and plasma cells they never become directly involved in the immune response to foreign objects in a living body. If a pathogen the body has already ...

Mitochondrion

... phospholipids). Additionally, the inner membrane is rich in a an unusual phospholipid, cardiolipin , which is usually characteristic of bacterial plasma membranes . The outer mitochondrial membrane contains numerous integral proteins called porins , which contain a relatively large internal ...
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