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Phosphorylation in Biological Definition

Citric acid cycle

... acid cycle is always followed by oxidative phosphorylation . This process extracts the energy from NADH and ... cycle itself does not use oxygen, but oxidative phosphorylation does. The total energy gained from the complete ... glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation equals about 38 ATP molecules. The citric acid ...

Glycolysis

... ultimately oxidized by oxygen during oxidative phosphorylation . Although human metabolism is primarily ... Pathway The first step in glycolysis is phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase (in liver the most ... This step, one of the two substrate-level phosphorylation steps, requires ADP; thus, when the cell has ...

Citric acid cycle

... acid cycle is always followed by oxidative phosphorylation . This process extracts the energy from NADH and ... cycle itself does not use oxygen, but oxidative phosphorylation does. The total energy gained from the complete ... glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation equals about 38 ATP molecules. The citric acid ...

Phosphorylation

... phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO 4 ) group ... showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Protein phosphorylation 1.1 Function 1.2 Signaling networks 1.3 Types of phosphorylation 2 Other kinds ...

Signal transduction

... recipient cell can modify the sensitivity of the receptor, for example by phosphorylation ; also, the variation of the number of receptors can vary the total signal ... transcription. Furthermore, steroid receptor activity can be enhanced by phosphorylation of serine residues at their N-terminal end, as a result of another ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... Synthesis ATP can be produced by various cellular processes, most typically in mitochondria by oxidative phosphorylation under the catalytic influence of ATP synthase or in the case of plants in chloroplasts by photosynthesis . The main fuels for ATP synthesis are ...

ATP synthase

... force created by the electron transport chain as a source of energy. The overall process of creating energy in this fashion is termed oxidative phosphorylation . Same process takes place in mitochondria , were ATP synthase is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane (so that F 1 -part sticks into ...

Carbohydrate

... blood. Catabolism There are three metabolic pathways of carbohydrate catabolism : glycolysis citric acid cycle oxidative phosphorylation See also Biochemistry Macromolecules Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Pentose phosphate pathway External links ...

Ion gradient

... force created by the electron transport chain as a source of energy. The overall process of creating energy in this fashion is termed oxidative phosphorylation . Same process takes place in mitochondria , were ATP synthase is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane (so that F 1 -part sticks into ...

Histone

... by enzymes primarily on their N-terminal tails, but also in their globular domains. Such modifications include methylation , acetylation , phosphorylation , ubiquitination , and ADP -ribosylation. This effects their function of gene regulation (see functions). In general, genes that are active ...

Intermembrane space

... space is the region between the inner membrane and the outer membrane of a mitochondrion or a chloroplast . Its main function is nucleotide phosphorylation . Channel proteins called porins in the outer membrane allow free movement of ions and small molecules into the intermembrane space. This ...

Long-term potentiation

... 19 (23), 10512-9. PMID 10575047 ^ Lu YF, Kandel ER, Hawkins RD (1999) "Nitric oxide signaling contributes to late-phase LTP and CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus". J Neurosci 19 (23), 10250-61. PMID 10575022 ^ Huang YY, Kandel ER (1994) "Recruitment of long-lasting and ...

Metabolism

... Protein catabolism , the hydrolysis of proteins into amino acids . Aerobic respiration Electron transfer chain Oxidative phosphorylation Anaerobic respiration , Cori cycle Lactic acid fermentation Fermentation Ethanol fermentation ...

Oxidative phosphorylation

... Oxidative phosphorylation is a biochemical process in cells . It is the final metabolic pathway of cellular respiration , after glycolysis and the citric acid cycle ....

Proteome

... are more proteins than genes . This is due to alternative splicing of genes and post-translational modifications like glycosylation or phosphorylation . Moreover the proteome has at least two levels of complexity lacking in the genome. When the genome is defined by the sequence of nucleotides , ...

Synapse

... of synapses. The nervous system exploits this property for computational purposes, and apparently tunes its synapses through such means as phosphorylation of the proteins involved. The size, number and replenishment rate of vesicles also are subject to regulation, as are many other elements of synaptic ...

Transmembrane receptor

... for the cell to regulate the activity of a transmembrane receptor. Most of them work through the intracellular domain. The most important ways are phosphorylation and internalization (see ubiquitin ). See also Signal transduction G protein Second messenger Neuromodulators ...
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