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Peptide in Biological Definition

Amino acid

... from the carboxylic side) in the formation of a peptide bond . Contents ... created by polymerization of amino acids by peptide bonds in a process called translation . peptide bond formation 1. Amino acid; 2, zwitterion ...

Hormone

... Examples are catecholamines and thyroxine . peptide hormones consist of chains of amino acids. Examples of small peptide hormones are TRH and vasopressin . Peptides ... (T4) triiodothyronine (T3) peptide hormones : antimullerian hormone (AMH, also ...

Neurotransmitter

... Bombesin/GRP: bombesin gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) Gastrins: gastrin ... Y (NY) pancreatic polypeptide (PP) peptide YY (PYY) Opioids : corticotropin ... motilin glucagon vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) ...

Peptide bond

... A peptide bond is a chemical bond formed between two ... reaction The resulting C-N bond is called a peptide bond, and the resulting molecule is called an ... are chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. The backbone of PNA is also held ...

Peptide

... bond , and is sometimes referred to as a peptide bond . An amide bond is somewhat shorter than a ... by virtue of their size. Traditionally, those peptide chains that are short enough to make ... be hundreds of residues long. So, in essence, a peptide is a small protein . There is considerable ...

Peptide

... bond , and is sometimes referred to as a peptide bond . An amide bond is somewhat shorter than a ... by virtue of their size. Traditionally, those peptide chains that are short enough to make ... be hundreds of residues long. So, in essence, a peptide is a small protein . There is considerable ...

Protein

... that consists of amino acids joined by peptide bonds . Proteins are essential to the structure ... primary structure is held together by covalent peptide bonds , which are made during the process of ... Denatured protein Intein peptide Prion Proteinoid Protein structure ...

Alpha helix

... of amino acids and peptides and Pauling's prediction of planar peptide bonds . The amino acids in an α helix are arranged in a helical ... basic structural elements in proteins, together with beta sheets . The peptide backbone of an α helix has 3.6 amino acids per turn. See also : ...

Apoptosis

... pathway was found to be dramatically restored in H460 cells with a Smac peptide (SmacN7) that targets IAPs. Yang and her team successfully developed a SmacN7 peptide that selectively reversed apoptosis resistance - and hence tumor growth - ...

Enzyme

... is the RNA portion of the ribosome, which catalyzes the formation of peptide bonds in growing protein chains. Enzymes and health Enzymes are ... from their constituents Protease (peptidase): those enzymes which cut peptide bonds of proteins Protein kinases : those enzymes that transfer a ...

Hydrolysis

... reversed to its component alcohol and carboxylic acid . Hydrolysing peptide link of amino acids In other hydrolysis reactions such as hydrolysing the peptide links of amino acids only one of the products, the carboxylic acid ...

Proteomics

... proteomic techniques are based on mass spectrometry , commonly peptide mass fingerprinting on simpler instruments, or de novo sequencing on ... branch, dedicated to searching databases for possible protein or peptide matches, but also functional assignment of domains, prediction of function ...

Digestion

... the pancreas and stimulates the emptying of bile in the gall bladder . This hormone is secreted in resonse to fat in chyme. Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) - is in the duodenum and decreases the stomach churning in turn slowing the emptying in the stomach. Digestion in plants and fungi ...

Exon

... proteins to pre-mRNA using Morpholino antisense oligos. This has become a standard technique in developmental biology . See also peptide External links and references Walter Gilbert ( February 9 , 1978 ) "Why Genes In Pieces?" Nature 271 (5645):501. ...

Insulin

... released into the blood in equal amounts to the insulin protein. Since external insulins currently contain no C-peptide component, serum amounts of peptide C are good indicators of internal insulin production. C-peptide has recently been discovered to have biological activity itself; the activity is ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... cell's exterior surface for recognition by T cells . However, there are major differences between MHC class I and II in the method and outcome of peptide presentation. Mhc Class I molecules are found on almost every nucleated cell of the body. Class I molecules are heterodimers , consisting of ...

Nephron

... according to the body's needs under hormonal control , or from anti-diuretic hormones , aldosterone , parathyroid hormone , atrial-natriuretic peptide and others. In this process urine is produced, and in doing so, eliminates wastes from the body, regulates blood volume and blood pressure , ...

Origin of life

... polymerization; for another, the Miller experiment produces many substances that would undergo cross-reactions with the amino acids or terminate the peptide chain. A possible answer to this polymerization conundrum was provided in 1980s by Gnter Wchtershuser , in his iron-sulfur world theory . In ...

Primary structure

... the species of every subunit ( nucleotide or amino acid ) in order from the beginning to the end of the molecule to obtain either nucleotide or peptide sequence . The primary structure, in other words, is a biopolymer's exact chemical composition and to the sequence in which its subunits are ....

Proteome

... proteomics. Mass mapping identifies a protein by cleaving it into short peptides and then deduces the protein's identity by matching the observed peptide masses against a sequence database . Tandem mass spectrometry, on the other hand, can get sequence information from individual peptides by ...

RNA

... and probably the only, form of life. This hypothesis is inspired by the fact that retroviruses use RNA as their sole genetic material, while peptide bond formation in the ribosome is carried out by an RNA-derived ribozyme . From this perspective, retroviruses and ribozymes are remnants, or ...

Ribosome

... smaller protein molecules. Experiments have shown that the rRNA are the crucial components in protein synthesis, and that one aspect of the process, peptide transfer, can occur in the presence of rRNA alone, albeit at a slower rate. This suggests that the protein components of ribosomes act as a scaffold ...
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